Información

Almirante Sir William Batten (muerto en 1667)


Almirante Sir William Batten

Marinero experimentado que comandó la marina del Parlamento en la segunda mitad de la Guerra Civil. Batten había sido capitán de barco desde 1626, sirviendo como topógrafo de la marina desde 1638. Cuando comenzó la Guerra Civil, el almirante de la flota, el conde de Warwick, se puso del lado del Parlamento, al igual que Batten, quien se convirtió en su segundo al mando. La principal tarea de la armada era evitar que los suministros del continente llegaran al Rey. A principios de febrero de 1643, la reina Enriqueta María estaba lista para intentar la navegación. Vigilada por una flota holandesa al mando de Martin van Tromp, navegó con un convoy de suministros y varios soldados profesionales. Batten no pudo interceptar el convoy en el mar, atrapándolo en el puerto de Bridlington, bombardeando al descargado y golpeando el alojamiento de la Reina. Sin embargo, se vio obligado a marcharse cuando von Tromp amenazó con dispararle.

Gran parte del tiempo de Batten se dedicó a ayudar en los combates en tierra. Cuando los realistas en el suroeste capturaron Weymouth y sitiaron Melcombe, justo al otro lado de la bahía, Batten estaba en su barco en los Downs y navegó hacia Melcombe, desembarcando 150 de sus marineros en la ciudad. Así reforzada, la guarnición pudo rechazar un ataque realista. En este punto, la posición de Warwick se vio amenazada por la Ordenanza de autonegación, y el 22 de mayo de 1645 Batten fue nombrado comandante en jefe de la flota, aunque no fue ascendido de vicealmirante, y el nombramiento fue visto al menos inicialmente como temporal. . Poco después, Batten participó en su victoria más impresionante. En la batalla de Colby Moor (1 de agosto de 1645), Batten ayudó a Sir Rowland Laugharne a derrotar a un ejército realista al mando de Sir Edward Stradling, mediante el envío de una fuerza de marineros detrás de la posición realista, en una de las pocas operaciones anfibias de la guerra. Asimismo, estuvo presente en el asedio de Dartmouth, aportando 200 marineros para el asalto final (18 de enero de 1645). También estuvo presente en una de las últimas acciones de la guerra, el asedio del castillo de Pendennis, que no terminó hasta el 16 de agosto de 1646.

A pesar de su historial de guerra, a finales de 1646 los realistas restantes estaban convencidos de que Batten estaba descontento con la naturaleza de la victoria del Parlamento. Cualquiera que sea la verdad en ese momento, a mediados de 1647 se demostró que estaban en lo cierto. A mediados de 1647, los independientes ganaron el poder en Londres. Batten, como presbiteriano, no le gustaba el nuevo régimen, que rápidamente se movió para atacar a sus enemigos. En agosto, con varios de sus colegas arrestados, seis parlamentarios presbiterianos, incluidos Denzil Holles y William Waller, decidieron huir a Holanda. Su barco casi había llegado a un lugar seguro cuando fue revisado por un barco parlamentario y regresó a Downs. Sin embargo, Batten los liberó y los devolvió a Holanda. Como resultado, en septiembre se vio obligado a dimitir y fue reemplazado por el coronel Rainsborough, un independiente con cierta experiencia en el mar, que era aborrecido por la armada mayoritariamente presbiteriana.

La tensión en la marina surgió el 27 de mayo de 1648 (Segunda Guerra Civil). La Flota se negó a permitir que Rainsborough subiera a bordo de su buque insignia y arrestó a los oficiales que se sabía eran independientes. En respuesta, el Parlamento volvió a nombrar al conde de Warwick como Lord Alto Almirante, pero incluso él inicialmente no pudo recuperar el control de la flota en Downs. Mientras tanto, en junio Batten fue citado ante el Comité de la Cámara de Derby bajo sospecha de sembrar el descontento en la flota. En lugar de asistir, abordó el Constant Warwick en Portsmouth, y persuadió a la tripulación para que se uniera a él en la navegación a Holanda para unirse al Príncipe de Gales. El príncipe Carlos le dio la bienvenida, lo nombró caballero y lo nombró contraalmirante de lo que durante un breve período fue una impresionante armada realista. Sin embargo, después de un intento fallido de llevar al conde de Warwick a la batalla en el Támesis (agosto de 1648), la flota realista fue bloqueada en aguas holandesas y se desmoronó rápidamente. Warwick ofreció una indemnización para aquellos que desearan regresar, y Batten la aprovechó. Sobrevivió a la Commonwealth, y en la Restauración fue reinstalado en topógrafo de la marina (1660), poniendo fin a su vida como maestro de Trinity House (desde 1663).

Libros sobre la Guerra Civil Inglesa | Índice de materias: Guerra civil inglesa


1911 Encyclopædia Britannica / Batten, Sir William

BATTEN, SIR WILLIAM (floruit 1626-1667), marinero británico, hijo de Andrew Batten, maestro de la marina real, aparece por primera vez sacando cartas de marca en 1626, y en 1638 obtuvo el puesto de agrimensor de la marina, probablemente por compra. En marzo de 1642 fue nombrado segundo al mando del conde de Warwick, el almirante parlamentario que arrebató la flota al rey. Fue el escuadrón del vicealmirante Batten el que bombardeó Scarborough cuando Henrietta Maria aterrizó allí. Fue acusado (parece injustamente) por los realistas de dirigir su fuego sobre todo a la casa ocupada por la reina, y hasta el final de la Primera Guerra Civil se mostró firme partidario del parlamento. Hasta el final de la Primera Guerra Civil, Batten continuó patrullando los mares ingleses, y su acción en 1647 de traer a Portsmouth varios barcos de guerra y mercantes suecos, que habían rechazado el saludo habitual a la bandera, fue aprobada por el parlamento. . Cuando comenzó la Segunda Guerra Civil, los independientes desconfiaron de él y lo destituyeron de su mando, aunque confesó su continua disposición a servir al estado. Cuando parte de la flota se rebeló contra el parlamento y se unió al príncipe de Gales en Holanda, en mayo de 1648, Batten fue con ellos. El príncipe lo nombró caballero, pero los realistas sospecharon que lo llevaron a tierra por amotinamiento en Holanda y lo devolvieron a Inglaterra. Vivió retirado durante el período de la Commonwealth. En la Restauración, Sir William Batten se convirtió una vez más en topógrafo de la marina. En esta oficina estaba en constante relación con Pepys, cuyo diario lo menciona con frecuencia, pero las insinuaciones de Pepys en su contra no deben tomarse demasiado en serio, ya que no hay evidencia que demuestre que Batten, al obtener ganancias de su oficina, cayera por debajo de los estándares. del tiempo. En 1661 se convirtió en M.P. para Rochester, y en 1663 fue nombrado maestro de Trinity House. Murió en 1667.

No hay una vida separada de Batten, pero muchos avisos de él se encontrarán en Penn's Vida de Sir W. Penny en Pepys Diario.


Creo que "Tener connotaciones de" no es lo mismo que "Se deriva de".

para el texto de una canción para beber & quotMonsieur Mingo & quot, y también puede escucharla si su computadora puede manejar archivos de Real Audio.

Esto es de Henry IV, Part Two, y se publicó en una colección de canciones para beber en 1611.

Sugiero que el nombre "Mingo" sobrevivió a la transición porque era un nombre muy conocido con cierta connotación, mientras que otros sirvientes negros que se mencionan, por ejemplo, se llaman "Jack".


En este día en Trinity House History & # 8211 13 de enero

Los hermanos mayores requeridos como asesores náuticos en el Admiralty Court

& # 8220Un Secretario del Tribunal de Causas Comunes asiste con el Pregonero de dicho Tribunal, con tres reglas de los Jueces, y notificó a tres de los Hermanos para comparecer en Westminster el 5 de febrero próximo y dar su opinión en un caso dependiendo, el negocio totalmente relacionado con el mar. & # 8221

Uno de los muchos deberes de los Hermanos Mayores es sentarse, cuando son convocados, para ayudar al Juez del Tribunal del Almirantazgo como asesores náuticos en el estrado de ese tribunal cuando surjan cuestiones de náutica, navegación y conocimientos náuticos, y cuando el Tribunal Superior se sienta como una cancha de premios. Los dos Hermanos mejor familiarizados con las cuestiones planteadas por el caso en cuestión asisten al Juez como Asesores.

El primer caso reportado de asesores que asistieron al Tribunal Superior del Almirantazgo es en 1541, y la Carta de Jaime II prescribe que el Capitán, los Vigilantes y Ayudantes, y sus Adjuntos, estando siempre a disposición del rey, están exentos de todo tipo de servicio terrestre. excepto Admiralty Sessions, "que ellos y cada uno de ellos estarán atados y obligados a atender, en caso de peligro, siendo convocados legalmente.”

Trinity House en Water Lane se incendia

Se registró el acta de la Junta del 14 de enero de 1715

“Anoche ocurrió un terrible incendio en Bear Key en Thames Street que ardió con tanta violencia que alrededor de las dos de esta mañana tomó las casas en Water Lane y consumió por completo la Trinity House perteneciente a esta Corporación. El Subdirector, los Vigilantes y los Hermanos Mayores ... se reunieron para considerar lo que era apropiado hacer de inmediato en esta triste ocasión, y Resolvieron que los asuntos de la Oficina de Lastre y otros asuntos de la Corporación se tramiten por el momento en el Mitre. Taberna en Fenchurch Street ... "

El relato de 1746 de la Corporación del Secretario de la Corporación John Whormby de 1746 recuerda una serie de archivos invaluables perdidos por el fuego y el caos de moverse de un sitio a otro: el Libro de Estatutos, varios estatutos y subvenciones, actas de la corte, informes, cartas, registros antiguos de balastos, balizamiento y balizamiento, varios en latín “un pequeño libro de vitela venerable de gran antigüedad”Que contiene traducciones de los estatutos de Enrique e Isabel, los estatutos de 1514, la forma de juramentos en el reinado de Isabel, un libro de Procedimientos en los Tribunales de Hacienda y Cancillería y la Casa de los Pares y copias de libros perdidos en Trinity House pero encontrado en Pepys Library en Magdalene College, Cambridge.

La casa, que Trinity House había ocupado desde 1660, fue reconstruida después del incendio y la Corporación continuó usándola como sede hasta 1796, momento en el que se construyó e inauguró la sede actual en Tower Hill.


Capitán William Crispin

16 domingo Septiembre de 2012

probable estar cerca y trabajar en asociación con el almirante Penn. Más tarde vivió en Kilrush, condado de Clare, en estrecha asociación con el almirante Penn, durante unos 20 años. Bien pudo haber sido un administrador de la "justicia" inglesa en el condado

ciertamente habrá sido premiado por sus anteriores simpatías y actividades realistas. No se menciona que se convirtió en cuáquero mientras estaba en Irlanda & # 8211, aunque es una posibilidad externa.

como propietarios y administradores.

Compartir este:

Como esto:


Contenido

El príncipe Luis de Battenberg nació el 25 de junio de 1900 en Frogmore House en Home Park, Windsor, Berkshire. Era el hijo menor y el segundo hijo del príncipe Luis de Battenberg y su esposa, la princesa Victoria de Hesse y por Rin. Sus abuelos maternos fueron Luis IV, Gran Duque de Hesse y la Princesa Alicia del Reino Unido, que era hija de la Reina Victoria y el Príncipe Alberto de Sajonia-Coburgo y Gotha. Sus abuelos paternos fueron el príncipe Alejandro de Hesse y por Rin y Julia, la princesa de Battenberg. [1] El matrimonio de sus abuelos paternos fue morganático porque su abuela no era de linaje real como resultado, él y su padre fueron llamados "Alteza Serena" en lugar de "Alteza Gran Ducal", no eran elegibles para ser titulados Príncipes de Hesse y recibieron el título de Battenberg menos exaltado. Sus hermanos mayores fueron la princesa Alicia de Battenberg (más tarde la princesa Andrés de Grecia y Dinamarca, madre del príncipe Felipe, duque de Edimburgo), la princesa Luisa de Battenberg (más tarde la reina Luisa de Suecia) y el príncipe Jorge de Battenberg (más tarde George Mountbatten, segundo Marqués de Milford Haven). [1]

Fue bautizado en el gran salón de Frogmore House el 17 de julio de 1900 por el Decano de Windsor, Philip Eliot. Sus padrinos fueron la Reina Victoria, Nicolás II de Rusia (representado por el padre del niño) y el Príncipe Francis Joseph de Battenberg (representado por Lord Edward Clinton). [2] Llevó el vestido de bautizo real original de 1841 en la ceremonia. [2]

El apodo de Mountbatten entre familiares y amigos era "Dickie", sin embargo, "Richard" no estaba entre sus nombres de pila. Esto se debió a que su bisabuela, la reina Victoria, había sugerido el apodo de "Nicky", pero para evitar confusiones con los muchos Nickys de la familia imperial rusa ("Nicky" se usó particularmente para referirse a Nicolás II, el último zar). , "Nicky" se cambió a "Dickie". [3]

El príncipe Louis fue educado en casa durante los primeros 10 años de su vida y luego fue enviado a Lockers Park School en Hertfordshire [4] y luego al Royal Naval College, Osborne, en mayo de 1913. [5] La hermana menor de su madre era rusa. Emperatriz Alexandra Feodorovna. En la infancia visitó la Corte Imperial de Rusia en San Petersburgo y se hizo íntimo con la Familia Imperial Rusa, albergando sentimientos románticos hacia su prima hermana materna, la Gran Duquesa María Nikolaevna, cuya fotografía mantuvo junto a su cama por el resto de su vida. [6]

De 1914 a 1918, Gran Bretaña y sus aliados estuvieron en guerra con las potencias centrales, lideradas por el Imperio alemán. Para apaciguar el sentimiento nacionalista británico, el rey Jorge V emitió una proclama real cambiando el nombre de la casa real británica de Casa alemana de Sajonia-Coburgo y Gotha a Casa de Windsor. Los parientes británicos del rey siguieron su ejemplo y el padre del príncipe Luis abandonó sus títulos y nombres alemanes y adoptó el apellido Mountbatten, una anglicización de Battenberg. Posteriormente, su padre fue creado marqués de Milford Haven.

Carrera temprana Editar

Mountbatten fue enviado como guardiamarina del crucero de batalla HMS León en julio de 1916 y, después de ver acción en agosto de 1916, fue transferido al acorazado HMS Reina Elizabeth durante las fases finales de la Primera Guerra Mundial. [5] En junio de 1917, cuando la familia real dejó de usar sus nombres y títulos alemanes y adoptó el "Windsor" con un sonido más británico, el príncipe Louis de Battenberg se convirtió en Louis Mountbatten y fue nombrado marqués de Milford Haven. Su segundo hijo adquirió el título de cortesía Lord Louis Mountbatten y fue conocido como Lord Louis hasta que fue creado par en 1946. [7] Realizó una visita de diez días al Frente Occidental, en julio de 1918. [8]

Fue nombrado oficial ejecutivo (segundo al mando) del pequeño buque de guerra HMS P. 31 el 13 de octubre de 1918 y fue ascendido a subteniente el 15 de enero de 1919. El HMS P. 31 participó en el concurso Peace River el 4 de abril de 1919 Mountbatten asistió a Christ's College, Cambridge, durante dos períodos, comenzando en octubre de 1919, donde estudió literatura inglesa (incluidos John Milton y Lord Byron) en un programa diseñado para aumentar la educación de los oficiales subalternos que había sido restringida por la guerra. [9] [10] Fue elegido por un período para el Comité Permanente de la Cambridge Union Society y se sospechaba que simpatizaba con el Partido Laborista, emergiendo entonces como un partido potencial del gobierno por primera vez. [11]

Fue enviado al crucero de batalla HMS Renombre en marzo de 1920 y acompañó a Edward, Príncipe de Gales, en una gira real por Australia en ella. [7] Fue ascendido a teniente el 15 de abril de 1920. [12] HMS Renombre regresó a Portsmouth el 11 de octubre de 1920. [13] A principios de 1921, el personal de la Royal Navy se utilizó para tareas de defensa civil, ya que los disturbios industriales graves parecían inminentes. Mountbatten tuvo que comandar un pelotón de fogoneros, muchos de los cuales nunca antes habían manejado un rifle, en el norte de Inglaterra. [13] Se transfirió al crucero de batalla HMS. Rechazar en marzo de 1921 y acompañó al Príncipe de Gales en una gira real por la India y Japón. [7] [14] Edward y Mountbatten formaron una estrecha amistad durante el viaje. [7] Mountbatten sobrevivió a los profundos cortes de defensa conocidos como Geddes Axe. Cincuenta y dos por ciento de los oficiales de su año habían tenido que dejar la Royal Navy a fines de 1923, aunque sus superiores lo consideraban muy bien, se rumoreaba que era más probable que los oficiales ricos y bien conectados fueran retenidos. [15] Fue enviado al acorazado HMS. Venganza en la Flota del Mediterráneo en enero de 1923. [7]

Siguiendo sus intereses en el desarrollo tecnológico y artilugios, Mountbatten se unió a la Portsmouth Signals School en agosto de 1924 y luego pasó brevemente a estudiar electrónica en el Royal Naval College de Greenwich. [7] Mountbatten se convirtió en miembro de la Institución de Ingenieros Eléctricos (IEE), ahora Institución de Ingeniería y Tecnología (IET). [16] Fue enviado al acorazado HMS. Centurion en la Flota de Reserva en 1926 y se convirtió en Asistente de la Flota Inalámbrica y Oficial de Señales de la Flota del Mediterráneo bajo el mando del Almirante Sir Roger Keyes en enero de 1927. [7] Ascendió a teniente-comandante el 15 de abril de 1928, [17] regresó a las Señales Escuela en julio de 1929 como Instructor Inalámbrico Senior. [7] Fue nombrado oficial inalámbrico de la flota de la Flota del Mediterráneo en agosto de 1931 y, habiendo sido ascendido a comandante el 31 de diciembre de 1932, [18] fue destinado al acorazado HMS. Resolución. [7]

En 1934, Mountbatten fue designado para su primer mando: el destructor HMS. Atrevido. [7] Su barco era un nuevo destructor, que debía navegar a Singapur y cambiarlo por un barco más antiguo, el HMS. Wishart. [7] Trajo con éxito Wishart Regresó al puerto de Malta y luego asistió al funeral del rey Jorge V en enero de 1936. [19] Mountbatten fue nombrado ayudante de campo naval personal del rey Eduardo VIII el 23 de junio de 1936 [20] y, habiéndose unido a la Aeronaval División del Almirantazgo en julio de 1936, [21] asistió a la coronación del rey Jorge VI y la reina Isabel en mayo de 1937. [22] Fue ascendido a capitán el 30 de junio de 1937 [23] y luego recibió el mando del destructor HMS Kelly en junio de 1939. [24]

En julio de 1939, Mountbatten obtuvo una patente (número 508,956 del Reino Unido) para un sistema para mantener un buque de guerra en una posición fija en relación con otro barco. [25]

Dentro del Almirantazgo, Mountbatten fue llamado "El Maestro del Desastre" por su inclinación a meterse en líos. [26] [27]

Segunda Guerra Mundial Editar

Cuando estalló la guerra en septiembre de 1939, Mountbatten se convirtió en Capitán (D) (comandante) de la Quinta Flotilla de Destructores a bordo del HMS. Kelly, que se hizo famoso por sus hazañas. [21] A finales de 1939 trajo al duque de Windsor del exilio en Francia ya principios de mayo de 1940 Mountbatten condujo un convoy británico a través de la niebla para evacuar a las fuerzas aliadas que participaban en la Campaña Namsos durante la Campaña Noruega. [24]

En la noche del 9 al 10 de mayo de 1940, Kelly fue torpedeado en medio del barco por un E-boat alemán S 31 frente a la costa holandesa, y Mountbatten a partir de entonces comandó la 5ta Flotilla de Destructores del destructor HMS Jabalina. [24] El 29 de noviembre de 1940, la 5.ª Flotilla se enfrentó a tres destructores alemanes frente a Lizard Point, Cornwall. Mountbatten se dirigió a babor para coincidir con un cambio de rumbo alemán. Este fue "un movimiento bastante desastroso ya que los directores se desviaron y perdieron el objetivo" [28] y resultó en Jabalina siendo golpeado por dos torpedos. Se reincorporó Kelly en diciembre de 1940, momento en el que se había reparado el daño del torpedo. [24]

Kelly fue hundido por bombarderos en picado alemanes el 23 de mayo de 1941 durante la Batalla de Creta [29] el incidente sirvió de base para la película de Noël Coward En el que servimos. [30] Coward era amigo personal de Mountbatten y copió algunos de sus discursos en la película. [29] Mountbatten fue mencionado en despachos el 9 de agosto de 1940 [31] y el 21 de marzo de 1941 [32] y recibió la Orden de Servicio Distinguido en enero de 1941. [33]

En agosto de 1941, Mountbatten fue nombrado capitán del portaaviones HMS. Ilustre que se encontraba en Norfolk, Virginia, para reparaciones después de la acción en Malta en enero. [29] Durante este período de relativa inactividad, realizó una visita rápida a Pearl Harbor, tres meses antes del ataque japonés. Mountbatten, consternado por la falta de preparación de la base naval de los EE. UU., Se basa en la historia de Japón de lanzar guerras con ataques sorpresa, así como en el exitoso ataque sorpresa británico en la Batalla de Taranto, que efectivamente sacó a la flota de Italia de la guerra, y la pura efectividad. de aviones contra buques de guerra, predijo con precisión que Estados Unidos entraría en guerra después de un ataque sorpresa japonés a Pearl Harbor. [29] [34]

Mountbatten era uno de los favoritos de Winston Churchill. [35] El 27 de octubre de 1941, Mountbatten reemplazó al Almirante de la Flota Sir Roger Keyes como Jefe del Cuartel General de Operaciones Combinadas y fue ascendido a comodoro. [29]

Sus deberes en este rol incluían inventar nuevas ayudas técnicas para ayudar con aterrizajes opuestos. [21] Los logros técnicos notables de Mountbatten y su personal incluyen la construcción de "PLUTO", un oleoducto submarino a Normandía, un puerto artificial Mulberry construido con cajones de hormigón y barcos hundidos, y el desarrollo de barcos de desembarco de tanques. [21] Otro proyecto que Mountbatten propuso a Churchill fue el Proyecto Habacuc. Iba a ser un portaaviones insumergible de 600 metros hecho de hielo reforzado ("Pykrete"): nunca se llevó a cabo Habakkuk debido a su enorme costo. [21]

Como comandante de Operaciones Combinadas, Mountbatten y su personal planearon la exitosa incursión de Bruneval, que obtuvo información importante y capturó parte de una instalación de radar alemana de Würzburg y uno de los técnicos de la máquina el 27 de febrero de 1942. Fue Mountbatten quien reconoció esa sorpresa y velocidad Fueron esenciales para capturar el radar, y vieron que un asalto aéreo era el único método viable. [36]

El 18 de marzo de 1942, fue ascendido al rango interino de vicealmirante y recibió los rangos honorarios de teniente general [37] y mariscal aéreo para tener la autoridad para llevar a cabo sus funciones en Operaciones Combinadas y, a pesar de los recelos del general Sir Alan Brooke, el Jefe del Estado Mayor Imperial, [38] Mountbatten fue colocado en el Comité de Jefes del Estado Mayor. [39] Fue en gran parte responsable de la planificación y organización de la incursión de St Nazaire el 28 de marzo, que puso fuera de combate uno de los muelles más fuertemente defendidos en la Francia ocupada por los nazis hasta mucho después del final de la guerra, las ramificaciones de que contribuyó a la supremacía aliada en la Batalla del Atlántico. Después de estos dos éxitos llegó el Dieppe Raid del 19 de agosto de 1942. Fue central en la planificación y promoción de la incursión en el puerto de Dieppe. La redada fue un rotundo fracaso, con casi un 60% de bajas, la gran mayoría de ellas canadienses. [29] Después del Dieppe Raid, Mountbatten se convirtió en una figura controvertida en Canadá, con la Legión Real Canadiense distanciándose de él durante sus visitas allí durante su carrera posterior. [40] Sus relaciones con los veteranos canadienses, que lo culparon por las pérdidas, "permanecieron frías" después de la guerra. [41]

Mountbatten afirmó que las lecciones aprendidas del Dieppe Raid eran necesarias para planificar la invasión de Normandía el Día D casi dos años después. Sin embargo, historiadores militares como el general de división Julian Thompson, ex miembro de los Royal Marines, han escrito que estas lecciones no deberían haber necesitado una debacle como Dieppe para ser reconocidas. [42] Sin embargo, como resultado directo de los fracasos del Dieppe Raid, los británicos hicieron varias innovaciones, entre las que destacan los Funnies de Hobart, vehículos blindados especializados que, en el curso del Desembarco de Normandía, sin duda salvaron muchas vidas en esas tres cabezas de playa sobre qué soldados de la Commonwealth estaban desembarcando (Gold Beach, Juno Beach y Sword Beach). [43]

En agosto de 1943, Churchill nombró a Mountbatten Comandante Supremo Aliado del Comando del Sudeste Asiático (SEAC) con ascenso a almirante en funciones. [29] Sus ideas menos prácticas fueron dejadas de lado por un experimentado personal de planificación dirigido por el teniente coronel James Allason, aunque algunas, como una propuesta para lanzar un asalto anfibio cerca de Rangún, llegaron hasta Churchill antes de ser aniquiladas. [44]

El intérprete británico Hugh Lunghi relató un episodio vergonzoso durante la Conferencia de Potsdam cuando Mountbatten, deseando recibir una invitación para visitar la Unión Soviética, intentó repetidamente impresionar a Joseph Stalin con sus antiguas conexiones con la familia imperial rusa. Como era de esperar, el intento fracasó, y Stalin preguntó secamente si "hacía algún tiempo que había estado allí". Dice Lunghi: "La reunión fue vergonzosa porque Stalin no estaba impresionado. No ofreció ninguna invitación. Mountbatten se fue con el rabo entre las piernas". [45]

Durante su tiempo como Comandante Supremo Aliado del Teatro del Sudeste Asiático, su mando supervisó la reconquista de Birmania de los japoneses por el general Sir William Slim. [46] Un punto culminante personal fue la recepción de la rendición japonesa en Singapur cuando las tropas británicas regresaron a la isla para recibir la rendición formal de las fuerzas japonesas en la región liderada por el general Itagaki Seishiro el 12 de septiembre de 1945, con el nombre en código Operación Tiderace. [47] El Comando del Sudeste Asiático se disolvió en mayo de 1946 y Mountbatten regresó a casa con el rango sustantivo de contraalmirante. [48] ​​Ese año, fue nombrado Caballero de la Jarretera y creado Vizconde Mountbatten de Birmania, de Romsey en el condado de Southampton, como un título de victoria para el servicio de guerra. Luego, en 1947, fue creado más Conde Mountbatten de Birmania y Barón Romsey, de Romsey en el condado de Southampton. [49] [50]

Después de la guerra, se sabía que Mountbatten había rechazado en gran medida a los japoneses por el resto de su vida por respeto a sus hombres asesinados durante la guerra y, según su voluntad, Japón no fue invitado a enviar representantes diplomáticos a su funeral en 1979. aunque conoció al emperador Hirohito durante su visita de estado a Gran Bretaña en 1971, según se informa a instancias de la reina. [51]

Último virrey de la India

Su experiencia en la región y, en particular, sus simpatías laboristas percibidas en ese momento llevaron a Clement Attlee a aconsejar al rey Jorge VI que nombrara Mountbatten Virrey de la India el 20 de febrero de 1947 [52] [53] encargado de supervisar la transición de la India británica a la independencia. después del 30 de junio de 1948. Las instrucciones de Mountbatten eran evitar la partición y preservar una India unida como resultado de la transferencia del poder, pero lo autorizaron a adaptarse a una situación cambiante para sacar a Gran Bretaña rápidamente con un mínimo daño a la reputación. [54] [55] Llegó a la India el 22 de marzo de 1947 por vía aérea, desde Londres. Por la noche, lo llevaron a su residencia y, dos días después, prestó el Juramento Virreinal. Su llegada vio disturbios comunales a gran escala en Delhi, Bombay y Rawalpindi. Mountbatten concluyó que la situación era demasiado volátil para esperar incluso un año antes de otorgar la independencia a India. Aunque sus asesores estaban a favor de una transferencia gradual de la independencia, Mountbatten decidió que la única forma de avanzar era una transferencia de poder rápida y ordenada antes de que terminara 1947. En su opinión, ya no significaría una guerra civil. [56] El Virrey también se apresuró a regresar a sus cursos técnicos superiores de la Armada. [57] [58]

Mountbatten apreciaba al líder del Congreso, Jawaharlal Nehru, y su perspectiva liberal para el país. Se sentía diferente sobre el líder de la Liga Musulmana, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, pero era consciente de su poder y dijo: "Si se pudiera decir que un solo hombre tenía el futuro de la India en la palma de su mano en 1947, ese hombre era Mohammad Ali Jinnah". . " [58] Durante su reunión con Jinnah el 5 de abril de 1947, [59] Mountbatten trató de persuadirlo de una India unida, citando la difícil tarea de dividir los estados mixtos de Punjab y Bengala, pero el líder musulmán fue inflexible en su objetivo de estableciendo un estado musulmán separado llamado Pakistán. [60]

Dadas las recomendaciones del gobierno británico de otorgar la independencia rápidamente, Mountbatten concluyó que una India unida era un objetivo inalcanzable y se resignó a un plan de partición, creando las naciones independientes de India y Pakistán. [21] Mountbatten fijó una fecha para la transferencia de poder de los británicos a los indios, argumentando que un cronograma fijo convencería a los indios de su sinceridad y la del gobierno británico en trabajar por una independencia rápida y eficiente, excluyendo todas las posibilidades de estancar el proceso. . [61]

Entre los líderes indios, Mahatma Gandhi insistió enfáticamente en mantener una India unida y durante un tiempo reunió con éxito a la gente hacia este objetivo. Durante su reunión con Mountbatten, Gandhi le pidió a Mountbatten que invitara a Jinnah a formar un nuevo gobierno central, pero Mountbatten nunca dijo una palabra de las ideas de Gandhi a Jinnah. [63] Cuando la línea de tiempo de Mountbatten ofreció la perspectiva de lograr la independencia pronto, los sentimientos tomaron un rumbo diferente. Dada la determinación de Mountbatten, la incapacidad de Nehru y Patel para lidiar con la Liga Musulmana y, por último, la obstinación de Jinnah, todos los líderes del partido indio (excepto Gandhi) accedieron al plan de Jinnah de dividir India, [64] que a su vez facilitó la tarea de Mountbatten. Mountbatten también desarrolló una fuerte relación con los príncipes indios, que gobernaban aquellas partes de la India que no estaban directamente bajo el dominio británico. Su intervención fue decisiva para persuadir a la gran mayoría de ellos de ver ventajas en optar por unirse a la Unión India. [65] Por un lado, la integración de los estados principescos puede verse como uno de los aspectos positivos de su legado. [66] Pero por otro lado, la negativa de Hyderabad, Jammu y Cachemira y Junagadh a unirse a uno de los dominios condujo a futuras tensiones entre Pakistán e India. [67]

Mountbatten adelantó la fecha de la partición de junio de 1948 al 15 de agosto de 1947. [68] La incertidumbre de las fronteras hizo que musulmanes e hindúes se movieran en la dirección en la que sentían que obtendrían la mayoría. Los hindúes y los musulmanes estaban completamente aterrorizados, y el movimiento musulmán de Oriente se equilibró con el movimiento similar de los hindúes de Occidente. [69] Un comité de límites presidido por Sir Cyril Radcliffe fue encargado de trazar los límites de las nuevas naciones. Con el mandato de dejar tantos hindúes y sijs en la India y tantos musulmanes en Pakistán como fuera posible, Radcliffe elaboró ​​un mapa que dividía los dos países a lo largo de las fronteras de Punjab y Bengala. Esto dejó a 14 millones de personas en el lado "equivocado" de la frontera, y muchas de ellas huyeron a "seguridad" en el otro lado cuando se anunciaron las nuevas líneas. [56]

Cuando India y Pakistán lograron su independencia a la medianoche del 14 al 15 de agosto de 1947, Mountbatten permaneció en Nueva Delhi durante 10 meses, sirviendo como el primer gobernador general de una India independiente hasta junio de 1948. [70] Siguiendo el consejo de Mountbatten, India tomó el tema. de Cachemira a las Naciones Unidas recién formadas en enero de 1948. Este problema se convertiría en una espina duradera en su legado y que no se ha resuelto hasta el día de hoy. [71] Las cuentas difieren sobre el futuro que Mountbatten deseaba para Cachemira. Los relatos paquistaníes sugieren que Mountbatten favoreció la adhesión de Cachemira a la India, citando su estrecha relación con Nehru. El propio relato de Mountbatten dice que simplemente quería que el maharajá, Hari Singh, tomara una decisión. El virrey hizo varios intentos de mediar entre los líderes del Congreso, Muhammad Ali Jinnah y Hari Singh en cuestiones relacionadas con la adhesión de Cachemira, aunque no logró resolver el conflicto en gran medida. [72] Después de la invasión tribal de Cachemira, fue por sugerencia suya que India se movió para asegurar el acceso de Cachemira a Hari Singh antes de enviar fuerzas militares para su defensa. [73]

A pesar de la autopromoción de su propio papel en la independencia de la India, especialmente en la serie de televisión La vida y la época del almirante de la flota Lord Mountbatten de Birmania, producido por su yerno Lord Brabourne, y Libertad a medianoche por Dominique Lapierre y Larry Collins (de la cual él fue la principal fuente citada), su historial se considera muy heterogéneo. One common view is that he hastened the process of independence unduly and recklessly, foreseeing vast disruption and loss of life and not wanting this to occur on his watch, but thereby actually helping it to occur (albeit in an indirect manner), especially in Punjab and Bengal. [74] John Kenneth Galbraith, the Canadian-American Harvard University economist, who advised governments of India during the 1950s and was an intimate of Nehru who served as the American ambassador from 1961 to 1963, was a particularly harsh critic of Mountbatten in this regard. [75]

The creation of Pakistan was never emotionally accepted by many British leaders, among them Mountbatten. [76] Mountbatten clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League's idea of Pakistan. [77] Jinnah refused Mountbatten's offer to serve as Governor-General of Pakistan. [78] When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged the creation of Pakistan had he known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, he replied, "Most probably". [79]

Career after India Edit

After India, Mountbatten served as commander of the 1st Cruiser Squadron in the Mediterranean Fleet and, having been granted the substantive rank of vice-admiral on 22 June 1949, [80] he became Second-in-Command of the Mediterranean Fleet in April 1950. [70] He became Fourth Sea Lord at the Admiralty in June 1950. He then returned to the Mediterranean to serve as Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet and NATO Commander Allied Forces Mediterranean from June 1952. [70] He was promoted to the substantive rank of full admiral on 27 February 1953. [81] In March 1953, he was appointed Personal Aide-de-Camp to the Queen. [82]

Mountbatten served his final posting at the Admiralty as First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff from April 1955 to July 1959, the position which his father had held some forty years before. This was the first time in Royal Naval history that a father and son had both attained such high rank. [83] He was promoted to Admiral of the Fleet on 22 October 1956. [84]

In the Suez Crisis of 1956, Mountbatten strongly advised his old friend Prime Minister Anthony Eden against the Conservative government's plans to seize the Suez canal in conjunction with France and Israel. He argued that such a move would destabilize the Middle East, undermine the authority of the United Nations, divide the Commonwealth and diminish Britain's global standing. His advice was not taken. Eden insisted that Mountbatten not resign. Instead, he worked hard to prepare the Royal Navy for war with characteristic professionalism and thoroughness. [85] [86]

Military commanders did not understand the physics involved in a nuclear explosion. This became evident when Mountbatten had to be reassured that the fission reactions from the Bikini Atoll tests would not spread through the oceans and blow up the planet. [87] As Mountbatten became more familiar with this new form of weaponry, he increasingly grew opposed to its use in combat yet at the same time he realised the potential for nuclear energy, especially with regard to submarines. Mountbatten expressed his feelings towards the use of nuclear weapons in combat in his article "A Military Commander Surveys The Nuclear Arms Race", which was published shortly after his death in Seguridad internacional in the Winter of 1979–1980. [88]

After leaving the Admiralty, Mountbatten took the position of Chief of the Defence Staff. [70] He served in this post for six years during which he was able to consolidate the three service departments of the military branch into a single Ministry of Defence. [89] Ian Jacob, co-author of the 1963 Report on the Central Organisation of Defence that served as the basis of these reforms, described Mountbatten as "universally mistrusted in spite of his great qualities". [90] On their election in October 1964, the Wilson ministry had to decide whether to renew his appointment the following July. The Defence Secretary, Denis Healey, interviewed the forty most senior officials in the Ministry of Defence only one, Sir Kenneth Strong, a personal friend of Mountbatten, recommended his reappointment. [90] "When I told Dickie of my decision not to reappoint him," recalls Healey, "he slapped his thigh and roared with delight but his eyes told a different story." [90]

Mountbatten was appointed colonel of the Life Guards and Gold Stick in Waiting on 29 January 1965 [91] and Life Colonel Commandant of the Royal Marines the same year. [92] He was Governor of the Isle of Wight from 20 July 1965 [93] and then the first Lord Lieutenant of the Isle of Wight from 1 April 1974. [94]

In 1969, Mountbatten tried unsuccessfully to persuade his cousin, the Spanish pretender Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, to ease the eventual accession of his son, Juan Carlos, to the Spanish throne by signing a declaration of abdication while in exile. [96] The next year Mountbatten attended an official White House dinner during which he took the opportunity to have a 20-minute conversation with Richard Nixon and Secretary of State William P. Rogers, about which he later wrote, "I was able to talk to the President a bit about both Tino [Constantine II of Greece] and Juanito [Juan Carlos of Spain] to try and put over their respective points of view about Greece and Spain, and how I felt the US could help them." [96] In January 1971, Nixon hosted Juan Carlos and his wife Sofia (sister of the exiled King Constantine) during a visit to Washington and later that year El Washington Post published an article alleging that Nixon's administration was seeking to persuade Franco to retire in favour of the young Bourbon prince. [96]

From 1967 until 1978, Mountbatten was president of the United World Colleges Organisation, then represented by a single college: that of Atlantic College in South Wales. Mountbatten supported the United World Colleges and encouraged heads of state, politicians and personalities throughout the world to share his interest. Under his presidency and personal involvement, the United World College of South East Asia was established in Singapore in 1971, followed by the United World College of the Pacific in Victoria, British Columbia, in 1974. In 1978, Mountbatten passed the presidency of the college to his great-nephew, the Prince of Wales. [97]

Mountbatten also helped to launch the International Baccalaureate in 1971 he presented the first IB diplomas in the Greek Theatre of the International School of Geneva, Switzerland. [98] [99] [100]

In 1975 he finally visited the Soviet Union, leading the delegation from UK as personal representative of Queen Elizabeth II at the celebrations to mark the 30th anniversary of Victory Day in World War II in Moscow. [101]

Alleged plots against Harold Wilson Edit

Peter Wright, in his 1987 book Spycatcher, claimed that in May 1968 Mountbatten attended a private meeting with press baron Cecil King, and the government's Chief Scientific Adviser, Solly Zuckerman. Wright alleged that "up to thirty" MI5 officers had joined a secret campaign to undermine the crisis-stricken Labour government of Harold Wilson and that King was an MI5 agent. In the meeting, King allegedly urged Mountbatten to become the leader of a government of national salvation. Solly Zuckerman pointed out that it was "rank treachery" and the idea came to nothing because of Mountbatten's reluctance to act. [102] In contrast, Andrew Lownie has suggested that it took the intervention of the Queen to dissuade him from plotting against Wilson. [103]

In 2006, the BBC documentary The Plot Against Harold Wilson alleged that there had been another plot involving Mountbatten to oust Wilson during his second term in office (1974–1976). The period was characterised by high inflation, increasing unemployment and widespread industrial unrest. The alleged plot revolved around right-wing former military figures who were supposedly building private armies to counter the perceived threat from trade unions and the Soviet Union. They believed that the Labour Party was unable and unwilling to counter these developments and that Wilson was either a Soviet agent or at the very least a Communist sympathiser – claims Wilson strongly denied. The documentary alleged that a coup was planned to overthrow Wilson and replace him with Mountbatten using the private armies and sympathisers in the military and MI5. [104]

The first official history of MI5, La defensa del reino (2009), implied that there was a plot against Wilson and that MI5 did have a file on him. Yet it also made clear that the plot was in no way official and that any activity centred on a small group of discontented officers. This much had already been confirmed by former cabinet secretary Lord Hunt, who concluded in a secret inquiry conducted in 1996 that "there is absolutely no doubt at all that a few, a very few, malcontents in MI5 . a lot of them like Peter Wright who were right-wing, malicious and had serious personal grudges – gave vent to these and spread damaging malicious stories about that Labour government." [105]

Matrimonio Editar

Mountbatten was married on 18 July 1922 to Edwina Cynthia Annette Ashley, daughter of Wilfred William Ashley, later 1st Baron Mount Temple, himself a grandson of the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury. She was the favourite granddaughter of the Edwardian magnate Sir Ernest Cassel and the principal heir to his fortune. The couple spent heavily on households, luxuries and entertainment. [7] There followed a honeymoon tour of European royal courts and America which included a visit to Niagara Falls (because "all honeymooners went there"). [3]

Mountbatten admitted: "Edwina and I spent all our married lives getting into other people's beds." [106] He maintained an affair for several years with Yola Letellier, [107] the wife of Henri Letellier, publisher of Le Journal and mayor of Deauville (1925–28). [108] Yola Letellier's life story was the inspiration for Colette's novel Gigi. [107]

After Edwina died in 1960, Mountbatten was involved in relationships with young women, according to his daughter Patricia, his secretary John Barratt, his valet Bill Evans and William Stadiem, an employee of Madame Claude. [109]

Sexuality Edit

Ron Perks, Mountbatten's driver in Malta in 1948, alleged that he used to visit the Red House, a gay brothel in Rabat. [110] Andrew Lownie, a fellow of the Royal Historical Society, wrote that the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) maintained files regarding Mountbatten's alleged homosexuality. [111] Lownie also interviewed several young men who claimed to have been in a relationship with Mountbatten. John Barratt, Mountbatten's personal and private secretary for 20 years, [112] has denied Mountbatten was a homosexual, claiming it would be impossible for such a fact to be hidden from him. [109]

Allegations of sexual abuse Edit

The FBI file on Mountbatten, begun after he took on the role of Supreme Allied Commander in Southeast Asia in 1944, contains a claim by American author Elizabeth Wharton Drexel that Mountbatten had "a perversion for young boys". [111] [113] Norman Nield, Mountbatten's driver from 1942 to 1943, told the tabloid New Zealand Truth that he transported young boys aged 8 to 12 and was paid to keep quiet. Robin Bryans had also claimed to the Irish magazine Now that he and Anthony Blunt, along with others, were part of a ring that engaged in homosexual orgies and procured boys in their first year at public schools such as the Portora Royal School in Enniskillen. Former residents of the Kincora Boys' Home in Belfast have asserted that they were trafficked to Mountbatten at his residence in Mullaghmore, County Sligo. [114] [115] [116] These claims were dismissed by the Historical Institution Abuse (HIA) Inquiry. [117] [109] [118] The HIA stated that the article making the original allegations "did not give any basis for the assertions that any of these people [Mountbatten and others] were connected with Kincora". [117]

Daughter as heir Edit

Lord and Lady Mountbatten had two daughters: Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma (14 February 1924 – 13 June 2017), [119] sometime lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth II, and Lady Pamela Hicks (born 19 April 1929), who accompanied them to India in 1947–1948 and was also sometime lady-in-waiting to the Queen. [1]

Since Mountbatten had no sons when he was created Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, of Romsey in the County of Southampton on 27 August 1946 [120] and then Earl Mountbatten of Burma and Baron Romsey, in the County of Southampton on 28 October 1947, [121] the Letters Patent were drafted such that in the event he left no sons or issue in the male line, the titles could pass to his daughters, in order of seniority of birth, and to their male heirs respectively. [50]

Leisure interests Edit

Like many members of the royal family, Mountbatten was an aficionado of polo. He received US patent 1,993,334 in 1931 for a polo stick. [122] Mountbatten introduced the sport to the Royal Navy in the 1920s and wrote a book on the subject. [3] He also served as Commodore of Emsworth Sailing Club in Hampshire from 1931. [123] He was a long-serving Patron of the Society for Nautical Research (1951–1979). [124]

Mentorship of the Prince of Wales Edit

Mountbatten was a strong influence in the upbringing of his grand-nephew, Charles, Prince of Wales, and later as a mentor – "Honorary Grandfather" and "Honorary Grandson", they fondly called each other according to the Jonathan Dimbleby biography of the Prince – though according to both the Ziegler biography of Mountbatten and the Dimbleby biography of the Prince, the results may have been mixed. He from time to time strongly upbraided the Prince for showing tendencies towards the idle pleasure-seeking dilettantism of his predecessor as Prince of Wales, King Edward VIII, whom Mountbatten had known well in their youth. Yet he also encouraged the Prince to enjoy the bachelor life while he could, and then to marry a young and inexperienced girl so as to ensure a stable married life. [125]

Mountbatten's qualification for offering advice to this particular heir to the throne was unique it was he who had arranged the visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth to Dartmouth Royal Naval College on 22 July 1939, taking care to include the young Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret in the invitation, but assigning his nephew, Cadet Prince Philip of Greece, to keep them amused while their parents toured the facility. This was the first recorded meeting of Charles's future parents. [126] But a few months later, Mountbatten's efforts nearly came to naught when he received a letter from his sister Alice in Athens informing him that Philip was visiting her and had agreed to repatriate permanently to Greece. Within days, Philip received a command from his cousin and sovereign, King George II of Greece, to resume his naval career in Britain which, though given without explanation, the young prince obeyed. [127]

In 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with Charles about a potential marriage to his granddaughter, Hon. Amanda Knatchbull. [128] It was about this time he also recommended that the 25-year-old prince get on with "sowing some wild oats". [128] Charles dutifully wrote to Amanda's mother (who was also his godmother), Lady Brabourne, about his interest. Her answer was supportive, but advised him that she thought her daughter still rather young to be courted. [129]

In February 1975, Charles visited New Delhi to play polo and was shown around Rashtrapati Bhavan, the former Viceroy's House, by Mountbatten. [130]

Four years later, Mountbatten secured an invitation for himself and Amanda to accompany Charles on his planned 1980 tour of India. [129] Their fathers promptly objected. Prince Philip thought that the Indian public's reception would more likely reflect response to the uncle than to the nephew. Lord Brabourne counselled that the intense scrutiny of the press would be more likely to drive Mountbatten's godson and granddaughter apart than together. [129]

Charles was rescheduled to tour India alone, but Mountbatten did not live to the planned date of departure. When Charles finally did propose marriage to Amanda later in 1979, the circumstances were changed and she refused him. [129]

On 27 April 1977, shortly before his 77th birthday, Mountbatten became the first member of the Royal Family to appear on the TV guest show This Is Your Life. [131]

Assassination Edit

Mountbatten usually holidayed at his summer home, Classiebawn Castle, on the Mullaghmore Peninsula in County Sligo, in the north-west of Ireland. The village was only 12 miles (19 km) from the border with County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland and near an area known to be used as a cross-border refuge by IRA members. [132] [133] In 1978, the IRA had allegedly attempted to shoot Mountbatten as he was aboard his boat, but poor weather had prevented the sniper taking his shot. [134]

On 27 August 1979, Mountbatten went lobster-potting and tuna fishing in his 30-foot (9.1 m) wooden boat, Shadow V, which had been moored in the harbour at Mullaghmore. [133] IRA member Thomas McMahon had slipped onto the unguarded boat that night and attached a radio-controlled bomb weighing 50 pounds (23 kg). When Mountbatten and his party had taken the boat just a few hundred yards from the shore, the bomb was detonated. The boat was destroyed by the force of the blast and Mountbatten's legs were almost blown off. Mountbatten, then aged 79, was pulled alive from the water by nearby fishermen, but died from his injuries before being brought to shore. [133] [135] [136]

Also aboard the boat were his elder daughter Patricia, Lady Brabourne her husband Lord Brabourne their twin sons Nicholas and Timothy Knatchbull Lord Brabourne's mother Doreen, Dowager Lady Brabourne and Paul Maxwell, a young crew member from Enniskillen in County Fermanagh. [137] Nicholas (aged 14) and Paul (aged 15) were killed by the blast and the others were seriously injured. [138] Doreen, Dowager Lady Brabourne (aged 83), died from her injuries the following day. [139]

The attack triggered outrage and condemnation around the world. [140] The Queen received messages of condolence from leaders including American President Jimmy Carter and Pope John Paul II. [141] Carter expressed his "profound sadness" at the death. [142]

His death leaves a gap that can never be filled. The British people give thanks for his life and grieve at his passing. [143]

George Colley, the Tánaiste (Deputy head of government) of the Republic of Ireland, said:

No effort will be spared to bring those responsible to justice. It is understood that subversives have claimed responsibility for the explosion. Assuming that police investigations substantiate the claim, I know that the Irish people will join me in condemning this heartless and terrible outrage. [143]

The IRA issued a statement afterward, saying:

The IRA claim responsibility for the execution of Lord Louis Mountbatten. This operation is one of the discriminate ways we can bring to the attention of the English people the continuing occupation of our country. . The death of Mountbatten and the tributes paid to him will be seen in sharp contrast to the apathy of the British Government and the English people to the deaths of over three hundred British soldiers, and the deaths of Irish men, women, and children at the hands of their forces. [132] [144]

Six weeks later, [145] Sinn Féin vice-president Gerry Adams said of Mountbatten's death:

The IRA gave clear reasons for the execution. I think it is unfortunate that anyone has to be killed, but the furor created by Mountbatten's death showed up the hypocritical attitude of the media establishment. As a member of the House of Lords, Mountbatten was an emotional figure in both British and Irish politics. What the IRA did to him is what Mountbatten had been doing all his life to other people and with his war record I don't think he could have objected to dying in what was clearly a war situation. He knew the danger involved in coming to this country. In my opinion, the IRA achieved its objective: people started paying attention to what was happening in Ireland. [145]

Adams later said in an interview, "I stand over what I said then. I'm not one of those people that engages in revisionism. Thankfully the war is over." [146]

On the day of the bombing, the IRA also ambushed and killed eighteen British soldiers at the gates of Narrow Water Castle, just outside Warrenpoint, in County Down in Northern Ireland, sixteen of them from the Parachute Regiment, in what became known as the Warrenpoint ambush. [147] It was the deadliest attack on the British Army during the Troubles. [133]

Funeral Edit

On 5 September 1979 Mountbatten received a ceremonial funeral at Westminster Abbey, which was attended by the Queen, the royal family and members of the European royal houses. Watched by thousands of people, the funeral procession, which started at Wellington Barracks, included representatives of all three British Armed Services, and military contingents from Burma, India, the United States (represented by 70 sailors of the U.S. Navy and 50 U.S. Marines [148] ), France (represented by the French Navy) and Canada. His coffin was drawn on a gun carriage by 118 Royal Navy ratings. [149] [150] During the televised service, the Prince of Wales read the lesson from Psalm 107. [149] In an address, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Donald Coggan, highlighted his various achievements and his "lifelong devotion to the Royal Navy". [151] After the public ceremonies, which he had planned himself, Mountbatten was buried in Romsey Abbey. [152] [153] As part of the funeral arrangements, his body had been embalmed by Desmond Henley. [154]

Aftermath Edit

Two hours before the bomb detonated, Thomas McMahon had been arrested at a Garda checkpoint between Longford and Granard on suspicion of driving a stolen vehicle. He was tried for the assassinations in Ireland and convicted on 23 November 1979 based on forensic evidence supplied by James O'Donovan that showed flecks of paint from the boat and traces of nitroglycerine on his clothes. [155] He was released in 1998 under the terms of the Good Friday Agreement. [133] [156]

On hearing of Mountbatten's death, the then Master of the Queen's Music, Malcolm Williamson, wrote the Lament in Memory of Lord Mountbatten of Burma for violin and string orchestra. The 11-minute work was given its first performance on 5 May 1980 by the Scottish Baroque Ensemble, conducted by Leonard Friedman. [157]

Mountbatten's faults, according to his biographer Philip Ziegler, like everything else about him, "were on the grandest scale. His vanity though child-like, was monstrous, his ambition unbridled. He sought to rewrite history with cavalier indifference to the facts to magnify his own achievements." [158] However, Ziegler concludes that Mountbatten's virtues outweighed his defects: [159]

He was generous and loyal. He was warm-hearted, predisposed to like everyone he met, quick-tempered but never bearing grudges. His tolerance was extraordinary his readiness to respect and listen to the views of others was remarkable throughout his life.

Ziegler argues he was truly a great man, although not profound or original. [159]

What he could do with superlative aplomb was to identify the object at which he was aiming, and force it through to its conclusion. A powerful, analytic mind of crystalline clarity, a superabundance of energy, great persuasive powers, endless resilience in the face of setback or disaster rendered him the most formidable of operators. He was infinitely resourceful, quick in his reactions, always ready to cut his losses and start again. He was an executor of policy rather than an initiator but whatever the policy, he espoused it with such energy and enthusiasm, made it so completely his own, that it became identified with him and, in the eyes of the outside world as well as his own, his creation.

Others were not so conflicted. Field Marshal Sir Gerald Templer, the former Chief of the Imperial General Staff, once told him, "You are so crooked, Dickie, that if you swallowed a nail, you would shit a corkscrew". [160]

Mountbatten's most controversial legacy came in his support for the burgeoning nationalist movements which grew up in the shadow of Japanese occupation. His priority was to maintain practical, stable government, but driving him was an idealism in which he believed every people should be allowed to control their own destiny. Critics said he was too ready to overlook their faults, and especially their subordination to communist control. Ziegler says that in Malaya, where the main resistance to the Japanese came from Chinese who were under considerable communist influence, "Mountbatten proved to have been naïve in his assessment. He erred, however, not because he was 'soft on Communism'. but from an over-readiness to assume the best of those with whom he had dealings." Furthermore, Ziegler argues, he was following a practical policy based on the assumption that it would take a long and bloody struggle to drive the Japanese out, and he needed the support of all the anti-Japanese elements, most of which were either nationalists or communists. [161]

Mountbatten took pride in enhancing intercultural understanding and in 1984, with his elder daughter as the patron, the Mountbatten Institute was developed to allow young adults the opportunity to enhance their intercultural appreciation and experience by spending time abroad. [162] The IET annually awards the Mountbatten Medal for an outstanding contribution, or contributions over a period, to the promotion of electronics or information technology and their application. [dieciséis]

Canada's capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, erected Mountbatten Avenue in his memory. [163] The Mountbatten estate in Singapore and Mountbatten MRT station were named after him. [164]

He was appointed personal aide-de-camp by Edward VIII, George VI [181] and Elizabeth II, and therefore bore the unusual distinction of being allowed to wear three royal cyphers on his shoulder straps. [182] [183]


WOOD, William (1611-78), of Wapping Wall, Mdx.

Although Wood was born in an inland village, he was already a shipwright at the time of his marriage, and was later recommended by Peter Pett as a supplier of masts to the Commonwealth navy. During the Interregnum he was in partnership with John Wright as contractor and shipowner. With the help of Sir William Batten he acquired a virtual monopoly in the early years of the Restoration, so that he was able to ‘set and command his own price’. Although Samuel Pepys succeeded in wresting at least one contract from him, to the benefit of Sir William Warren, he continued to prosper, and was described as ‘very rich’ on the occasion of his son’s marriage in 1666. In 1670 he entered into partnership with (Sir) Matthew Andrews to build an East Indiaman at Wivenhoe.4

Wood stood for Dunwich at a by-election early in 1671 against Admiral Sir Thomas Allin. When it was objected that he was a stranger in Dunwich his supporters claimed that he had been a freeman since September 1658 and ‘was intimately known to most of the freemen of Dunwich as having done eminent service in managing some of the affairs of the said corporation’. Besides serving ‘three several years’ master of the corporation of shipwrights’, he was also a merchant

His election was disputed, but he was allowed to sit on 25 Jan. on the merits of the return, and became a moderately active Member of the Cavalier Parliament. He was appointed to 28 committees, most on economic subjects, such as the preservation of naval stores (14 Apr. 1671), and those instructed in 1673 to inquire into the decay of the Muscovy, Eastland and Greenland trades and to give local authorities powers to prevent the spread of fire. On 19 Apr. 1675 during a debate on a motion to recall British subjects in the service of the French King, he desired


The Admiralty Court rules on behalf of Trinity House and compulsory pilotage on the Thames

Trinity House Court Minute:

“None take on himself to be Master or Pilot of any ship or vessel to go forth or return to the Thames without certificate by the Trinity House. From my Chamber in the Doctors Commons– Sir Henry Marten to the Master, etc.”

Sir Henry Marten was a judge of the Admiralty Court and a member of the Court of High Commission.

Greenwich Hospital from the north bank of the Thames, Canaletto, 1750-52 National Maritime Museum, London

Samuel Pepys records the election of the new Master

“To the Trinity House where the Brethren have been at Deptford choosing a new Master which is Sir J Minnes* notwithstanding Sir W Batten did contend highly for it at which I am not a little pleased, because of his proud lady.”

*Admiral Sir John Mennes Kt was elected Master I hope Pepys was not too dismayed that a year later Admiral Sir William Batten Kt was elected Master!


Mountbatten family

los Mountbatten family is a British dynasty that originated as an English branch of the German princely Battenberg family. The name was adopted on 14 July 1917, just three days before the British royal family had its name changed to Windsor, by members of the Battenberg family residing in the United Kingdom, due to rising anti-German sentiment amongst the British public during World War I. The name is a direct Anglicisation of the German Battenberg (literally 'Batten Mountain'), a small town in Hesse. The title of count of Battenberg, later prince of Battenberg, was granted to a morganatic branch of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt, itself a cadet branch of the House of Hesse, in the mid 19th century.

The family now includes the Marquesses of Milford Haven (and formerly the Marquesses of Carisbrooke), as well as the Earls Mountbatten of Burma. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, the late consort of Queen Elizabeth II, adopted the surname of Mountbatten from his mother's family in 1947, although he was a member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg by patrilineal descent. Lady Louise Mountbatten became Queen Consort of Sweden, after having married Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden.

Orígenes

The Mountbatten family are a branch of the German house of Battenberg. The Battenberg family was a morganatic branch of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt, rulers of the Grand Duchy of Hesse in Germany. The first member of the House of Battenberg was Julia Hauke, whose brother-in-law Grand Duke Louis III of Hesse created her Countess of Battenberg with the style Illustrious Highness in 1851, on the occasion of her morganatic marriage to Grand Duke Louis' brother Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine. Julia was elevated in her title to Princess of Battenberg with the style Serene Highness (HSH) in 1858. [1]

Two of Alexander and Julia's sons, Prince Henry of Battenberg and Prince Louis of Battenberg, became associated with the British Royal Family. Prince Henry married The Princess Beatrice, the youngest daughter of Queen Victoria. Prince Louis married Victoria's granddaughter, Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine, and became the First Sea Lord of the Royal Navy. Due to anti-German feelings prevalent in Britain during World War I, Prince Louis, his children, and his nephews (the living sons of Prince Henry), renounced their German titles and changed their name to the more English sounding Mountbatten. (They rejected an alternative translation, "Battenhill".) [2] Their cousin, George V compensated the princes with British peerages. Prince Louis became the 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, while Prince Alexander, Prince Henry's eldest son, became the 1st Marquess of Carisbrooke. [1] [3]

Members

Marquesses of Milford Haven

The marquessate of Milford Haven was created in 1917 for Prince Louis of Battenberg, the former First Sea Lord, and a relation to the British Royal family. He was at the same time made Earl of Medina and Viscount Alderney, also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. [3] Princess Alice of Battenberg never took the name Mountbatten as she married Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark in 1903 her son, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, took the name upon becoming a naturalised British citizen. [4]

    (1854–1921) m. Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine
    • Princess Alice of Battenberg (1885–1969) m. Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, son of King George I of Greece
      • Princess Margarita of Greece and Denmark (1905–1981) m. Gottfried, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
      • Princess Theodora of Greece and Denmark (1906–1969) m. Berthold, Margrave of Baden
      • Princess Cecilie of Greece and Denmark (1911–1937) m. Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse
      • Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark (1914–2001) m. Prince Christoph of Hesse d. 1943, m. Prince George William of Hanover (1921–2021), m. Isabel II del Reino Unido
      • Lady Tatiana Mountbatten (1917–1988) (1919–1970) m. Romaine Dahlgren Pierce div. 1954, m. Janet Mercedes Bryce
          (b. 1961) m. Sarah Georgina Walker div. 1996, m. Clare Steel
            (b. 1990)
      • Henry Mountbatten, Earl of Medina (b. 1991)
        • Ella Mountbatten (b. 1996)
        • Alexandra Mountbatten (b. 1998)
        • Louise Mountbatten (b. 2002)
          (1924–2017) m. John Knatchbull, 7th Baron Brabourne (b. 1929) m. David Nightingale Hicks
    • The heir apparent to the marquessate is the present holder's son Henry Mountbatten, Earl of Medina (b. 1991)

      The 1st Marquess's youngest daughter, Lady Louise Mountbatten, married the crown prince of Sweden in 1923. On his accession in 1950 as Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden, Louise became Queen consort of Sweden. [5] [6]

      Earls Mountbatten of Burma

      Earl Mountbatten of Burma is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created in 1947 for Rear Admiral Louis Mountbatten, 1st Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, youngest son of the 1st Marquess of Milford Haven and the last Viceroy of India. The letters patent creating the title specified the following special remainder to his daughters. The subsidiary titles of the Earldom are Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, of Romsey in the County of Southampton, created 1946, and Baron Romsey, of Romsey in the County of Southampton, created in 1947. Both of these titles, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, have the same special remainder as the Earldom. [7]

        (1900–1979) m. Edwina Cynthia Annette Ashley, daughter of Wilfrid Ashley, 1st Baron Mount Temple and great-granddaughter of Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury
          (1924–2017) m. John Knatchbull, 7th Baron Brabourne
            (b. 1947) m. Penelope Eastwood
            • Nicholas Knatchbull, Lord Brabourne (b. 1981)
            • Lady Alexandra Hooper (b. 1982) m. Thomas Hooper
            • The Hon. Leonora Knatchbull (1986–1991)
            • Kelly Knatchbull (b. 1988)
            • Savannah Knatchbull (b. 2001)
            • Daisy Knatchbull (b. 1992)
            • Frederick Knatchbull (b. 2003)
            • John Knatchbull (b. 2004)
            • Amber Knatchbull (b. 2000)
            • Milo Knatchbull (b. 2001)
            • Ludovic Knatchbull (b. 2003)
            • Isla Knatchbull (b. 2005)
            • Wilhelmina Knatchbull (b. 2008)
            • Edwina Brudenell (b. 1961) m. Jeremy Brudenell (b. 1963) m. Marina Allegra Federica Silvia Tondato, div. 2009, m. Katalina Sharkey de Solis
              • Angelica Hicks (b. 1992)
              • Ambrosia Hicks (b. 1997)
              • Caspian Hicks (b. 2018)
              • Horatio Hicks (b. 2019)

              The heir apparent to the earldom is the present holder's son, Nicholas Knatchbull, Lord Brabourne (born 1981).

              Marquess of Carisbrooke

              Marquess of Carisbrooke was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created in 1917 for Prince Alexander of Battenberg, eldest son of Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom and Prince Henry of Battenberg. He was made Viscount Launceston, in the County of Cornwall, and Earl of Berkhampsted at the same time, also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. [3] The titles became extinct upon Lord Carisbrooke's death in 1960, as he had no sons.

                (1886–1960) m. Lady Irene Denison, daughter of William Denison, 2nd Earl of Londesborough
                  (1920–1982) m. Captain Hamilton Joseph Keyes O'Malley, div. 1946, m. Michael Neely Bryan, div. 1957, m. William Alexander Kemp

                Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

                Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the son of Princess Alice of Battenberg and grandson of the 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, took the name Mountbatten when he became a naturalised British subject. Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten married Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King George VI of the United Kingdom, on 20 November 1947. In 1952, on the accession of his wife as Queen Elizabeth II, there was some dispute regarding the dynasty to which descendants of Elizabeth and Phillip would belong. Queen Mary (the new Queen's grandmother) expressed to Prime Minister Winston Churchill her aversion to the idea of the House of Mountbatten succeeding the House of Windsor as the royal dynasty. [4] Winston Churchill raised the matter in Parliament where it was decided that the name of the Royal House would remain Windsor, as decreed in perpetuity by Queen Mary's husband, King George V. [8]

                  (1921–2021) m. Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
                    (b. 1948) m. Lady Diana Spencer, div. 1996, m. Camilla Parker Bowles
                      (b. 1982) m. Catherine Middleton
                        (b. 2013) (b. 2015) (b. 2018)
                        (b. 2019) (b. 2021)
                        (b. 1988) m. Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi (b. 1990) m. Jack Brooksbank
                        (b. 2003) (b. 2007)

                      Mountbatten-Windsor is the personal surname of some of the descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh under an Order in Council issued in 1960, which has not been applied consistently. While the Order specifically applies the surname "Mountbatten-Windsor" to Elizabeth's male-line descendants not holding Royal styles and titles, "Mountbatten-Windsor" has been formally used by some of her descendants who hacer hold Royal styles. The surname was first officially used by Princess Anne in 1973, in the wedding register for her marriage to Mark Phillips. [9] Prince William and his wife Catherine used the names "Monsieur et Madame Mountbatten-Windsor" when filing a French lawsuit against the French magazine Más cerca. [10] [11] Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex and his wife Meghan have named their children Archie Mountbatten-Windsor and Lilibet Mountbatten-Windsor. [12] [13]

                      Mountbatten-Windsor differs from the official name of the British royal family or royal house, which remains Windsor. The adoption of the Mountbatten-Windsor surname applies only to members of the royal family who are descended from Elizabeth, and not, for example, to her cousins, or descendants of her sister, Princess Margaret. [9]

                      Legado

                      The city of Ottawa, Ontario, erected Mountbatten Avenue in memory of the 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma. A Royal Canadian Sea Cadets corps, RCSCC No. 134 Admiral Mountbatten, was named after him in 1946. [14] A 9 ft 5 in (2.9 m) bronze statue by Franta Belsky of Lord Mountbatten of Burma was erected in 1983 outside the Foreign Office, overlooking Horse Guards Parade. The earl is dressed in the uniform of an Admiral of the Fleet. [15]

                      The Mountbatten Institute (formerly known as the Mountbatten Internship Programme), an organization based in New York and London dedicated to fostering work experience and cultural exchange by placing international graduate students abroad to earn postgraduate and degrees was set up by his eldest daughter, Patricia, 2nd Countess Mountbatten. It was named in honour of the countess's father, the 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma. [dieciséis]

                      Despite the family's well-known connections with the Royal Navy, the Mount Batten Peninsula , overlooking the Royal Naval Base of Devonport, England, is not named after them but after Sir William Batten, a 17th-century Surveyor of the Navy.

                      Coats of arms

                      Family tree

                      Genealogical Table of the Battenberg, Mountbatten and Mountbatten-Windsor Family


                      Fuentes

                      Posted by H. Altenburg on Thursday 28th of May 2020 06:15

                      To Peter Harman, relatives and descendants (?) of Sir John Harman and others interested in this great admiral: I am presently writing on Sir John and would appreciate any contact if you were willing to share historic or anecdotal information or relevant leads.
                      Gracias. H Altenburg (Prof. ret.), USA, [email protected]

                      Posted by Peter Harman on Monday 2nd of July 2018 01:55

                      Posted by Peter Harman on Monday 2nd of July 2018 01:54

                      Posted by Brian on Wednesday 20th of January 2016 02:16

                      London Gazette 1667 Falmouth Sept. 25: The 23rd inst. arrived here the Mary of Swansea --- she came thence two months since and speaks much of the good conduct of Sir John Harman, confirming the success of his squadron and the entire defeat of the whole French Fleet.


                      Ver el vídeo: University of Texas at Austin 2014 Commencement Address - Admiral William H. McRaven (Enero 2022).