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La tumba del rey del siglo XI desenterrada en un monasterio ruinoso en Georgia


Los historiadores de Georgia hicieron un descubrimiento sorpresa durante los trabajos de restauración, cuando se encontraron con la ubicación de la tumba de un renombrado rey del siglo XI. th siglo. Los trabajadores descubrieron la lápida en un monasterio abandonado y albergaba una inscripción que significaba su ocupante real.

Lugar de descanso del rey

El equipo de conservadores descubrió el lugar de entierro del rey en el Monasterio de San Juan Bautista en la aldea de Kalauri en el municipio de Gurjaani, en el este de Georgia, esta semana, según informó Agenda.ge. A quién pertenecía la cripta se reveló en un extenso epitafio que nombraba al sepultado Rey Kvirike.

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El descubrimiento en el complejo de la aldea de Kalauri se realizó durante los trabajos de restauración en curso. (Crédito: Agencia de Patrimonio Cultural)

A partir del epitafio y la evidencia histórica, los historiadores han afirmado que se refiere al rey Kvirike III, también conocido como Kvirike el Grande, del reino Kakheti-Hereti del siglo XI.

Según una declaración de la Agencia Nacional para la Preservación del Patrimonio Cultural de Georgia e informada por Agenda.ge, el epitafio contenía un "texto extenso en Asomtavruli [guión]" que se refería al monarca. Asomtavruli es uno de los tres guiones que se utilizan para representan el idioma georgiano, aunque ahora está obsoleto en el uso diario y solo se usa en contextos religiosos.

Reinado de Kvirike III

Kvirike III gobernó como rey dentro del sistema feudal de Georgia oriental, gobernando el reino de Kakheti-Hereti desde 1014-1037 o 39. Aunque su reinado tuvo un comienzo incierto, más tarde logró unir los reinos de Kakheti y Hereti y por una vez que la región se volvió autónoma del resto de Georgia.

Kvirike inicialmente llegó a gobernar la región como sucesor de su padre, David, convirtiéndose así en un príncipe y también en el chorepiscopus (una posición del clero cristiano que se clasifica por debajo de Obispo) de Kakheti. Se presume que sus cargos religiosos son los que garantizan su lugar de descanso en el monasterio.

En ese momento, Georgia en su conjunto estaba gobernada por la dinastía Bagrationi, una dinastía monarcal que jugaría un papel en el gobierno de Georgia hasta el 19 th siglo. El patrón Bagrationi del día, el rey Bagrat III, rechazó la sucesión de Kvirike, lo tomó prisionero y reclamó a Kakheti. Cuando murió Bagrat III, Kvirike no solo reclamó su corona, sino que también se hizo cargo de la provincia vecina de Hereti, formando así el reino combinado e independiente de Kakheti-Hereti.

Moneda de Kvirike III, tipo arabográfico sin letras georgianas ( CC BY-SA 4.0 )

La región prosperó bajo su gobierno y formó su capital en Telvadi, construyendo un palacio en Bodoji. Más tarde formó coaliciones con Bagrat IV y otros, defendiendo con éxito el país contra varios invasores, incluido el del Imperio Bizantino. Según 17 th historiador georgiano del siglo XX, Vakhushti, fue finalmente asesinado por un esclavo que había tomado, como venganza por su asesinato del rey Alan Urdure que había intentado una invasión.

Después de su muerte, el Reino de Kakheti-Hereti duró como entidad soberana hasta 1104, cuando el rey David IV de Georgia lo fusionó con su reino unido de Georgia.

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El lugar de enterramiento fue desenterrado en la sección sur del monasterio. (Crédito: Agencia de Patrimonio Cultural)

La tumba

La tumba recientemente redescubierta que ha albergado los restos del rey Kvirike III durante aproximadamente un milenio, fue construida con piedra tallada y está situada en la sección sur del 9 th monasterio del siglo, informa Agenda.ge. El descubrimiento se realizó después de dos años de trabajos de reconstrucción que ya se habían completado en el sitio religioso que se deterioró anteriormente. Tal descubrimiento hace que el esfuerzo de restauración y la inversión valgan la pena.

Iglesia principal del monasterio de San Juan Bautista en las primeras etapas de restauración (LikeGeorgia)

El complejo del monasterio del siglo IX está ubicado en un bosque a las afueras del pueblo de Kalauri, e incluye la iglesia de San Juan Bautista y la residencia del chorepiscopus, entre otros edificios.

Está previsto que el epitafio sea analizado por expertos, antes de que la Agencia del Patrimonio Cultural inicie nuevas excavaciones arqueológicas en el sitio.


    Explore Armenia y los monasterios medievales n. ° 8217 en panorámicas interactivas de 360 ​​grados

    Estoy sentado en mi sala de estar, mirando hacia abajo a través de una realidad virtual & # 160 auricular en un pozo de tierra en Khor Virap donde la leyenda dice & # 160St. & # 160 Gregory the Illuminator estuvo detenido durante 15 años & # 160 antes de curar a su captor, el Rey Trdat, & # 160de una dolencia y convencerlo de que se convierta al cristianismo. Fábula o no, a principios de los años 300 d.C. Trdat había declarado al cristianismo la religión oficial del estado, lo que convirtió a Armenia en uno de los primeros, si no el primero, en instituir una iglesia cristiana nacional.

    La afirmación de Armenia de ser la primera nación cristiana es cuestionada por algunos, especialmente la nación de Etiopía, que también pretende ser la primera. La historia temprana del cristianismo es & # 160murky, pero en general, muchos estudiosos de hoy están de acuerdo en que Armenia tiene esta designación.

    & # 8220Aunque había cristianos en Etiopía ... & # 8220La Iglesia armenia afirma una conversión oficial de la nación al cristianismo en [el año] 301, aunque muchos eruditos hablan de 313 a 314. & # 8221 Kouymjian dice que la fecha real difiere entre las fuentes históricas armenias, pero los investigadores prefieren utilizar un fecha de 314, porque viene después del & # 160Edicto de Milán, que & # 160permitió la práctica abierta de cualquier religión en todo el Imperio Romano. Aun así, dijo, esto es todavía & # 8220 algunas décadas antes de Etiopía, donde nos enteramos de que la mayoría de los habitantes se convirtieron después de 340 & # 8221.

    Los historiadores creen que la decisión de Trdat puede haber estado motivada tanto por el deseo de consolidar el poder sobre la creciente comunidad de cristianos dentro de Armenia como por un movimiento político para demostrarle a Roma, que en ese momento ofreció apoyo al protectorado, una separación de caminos con La región rival de Roma, el régimen pagano de Sasán.

    Independientemente del razonamiento, con el apoyo de Trdat, San Gregorio se convirtió en el primer católico de la Iglesia Apostólica Armenia & # 160 y fue & # 160sobre la región difundiendo la fe y construyendo iglesias sobre templos paganos & # 160.

    Hoy en día, el paisaje armenio está salpicado de iglesias espectaculares, las más notables de las cuales se remontan al período medieval, cuando el desarrollo de los monasterios comunales transformó estos lugares remotos en centros de arte y aprendizaje. Hoy en día, muchos de estos monasterios históricos todavía están fuera de los caminos trillados, encaramados con vistas a vastas gargantas o escondidos en valles boscosos. & # 160

    Esto es parte de lo que & # 160la aplicación y el sitio web 360GreatArmenia & # 160VR & # 160 están tratando de resolver haciendo que los recorridos virtuales estén disponibles desde cualquier lugar. Además del Monasterio Khor Virap & # 8203, el proyecto ha capturado más de 300 recorridos de realidad virtual de sitios antiguos dentro de la Armenia moderna.

    El fundador del proyecto, Vahagn Mosinyan, dijo que ver una imagen de 360 ​​grados de otra ciudad en línea en 2012 "provocó un interés & # 160 en hacer la misma plataforma de 360 ​​grados para Armenia, porque es una gran herramienta para preservar y archivar la cultura herencia." Las imágenes cosidas resultantes, tomadas tanto por drones como por fotógrafos en el suelo, permiten a los espectadores cambiar de vistas aéreas a vistas de la calle, navegar por interiores y ver reliquias y arte histórico. Los usuarios están invitados a anotar los destinos con información e historias. & # 160 Con el respaldo de Ucom, un proveedor de servicios de Internet armenio & # 160, & # 160, el proyecto también se presentó recientemente en una exhibición especial en la Galería Nacional de Armenia en Ereván que se centró en en los más de 50 monumentos culturales que el proyecto ha capturado en la histórica Armenia occidental, en la actual Turquía.

    Los monasterios a continuación se pueden explorar a través de panoramas interactivos de 360 ​​grados o navegar virtualmente usando la aplicación de teléfono inteligente del proyecto (iOS, Android) y un visor de realidad virtual.


    Mapa de Monasterio de Gelati

    Desde el retiro de la controvertida Catedral de Bagrati, el Monasterio de Gelati puede brillar por derecho propio. Y qué espectáculo es este. Sus pinturas murales son abrumadoras e intrigantes al mismo tiempo, porque las personas representadas superan con creces la lista promedio de figuras santas cristianas. Muestran santos y personajes históricos de Georgia y el imperio bizantino con sus ropas más hermosas.

    El monasterio de Gelati del siglo XII se remonta a la Edad de Oro de la Georgia medieval. El complejo consta de 3 iglesias, un campanario independiente y un edificio de la academia. Fue durante mucho tiempo el centro cultural de Georgia, con su propia academia donde trabajaron los mejores científicos, teólogos y filósofos.

    Desde el centro de Kutaisi, un minibús sale 5 veces al día directamente a este monasterio. Comienza desde un pequeño estacionamiento con algunos otros minibuses locales en la parte trasera del Teatro Meskhishvili. El viaje cuesta 1 lari (0,30 EUR). El autobús de las 4 de la tarde que tomé solo transportaba mujeres: unas pocas que vivían en la ruta y que habían ido de compras a la ciudad, otro turista y yo. Nosotros dos fuimos los únicos que permanecimos en el autobús hasta el final. Ya se puede ver el monasterio desde la distancia, en una colina entre la vegetación. El viaje dura solo unos 20 minutos.

    El complejo tiene el conjunto habitual (para Georgia) de puestos de souvenirs y bocadillos en el estacionamiento. Un pequeño patio contiene las 3 iglesias, el campanario y el edificio de la academia. Inmediatamente fui a la iglesia principal. Su interior está cubierto de murales por toda la superficie. Hay innumerables escenas y retratos, claramente realizados en diferentes épocas. Me alegré de haber traído mi guía de viaje Bradt conmigo: en su descripción de 2 páginas del Monasterio se dan los nombres de las personas más prominentes representadas.

    Sobre el altar de la cúpula hay un mosaico dorado de María con el niño, un mosaico de inspiración bizantina que es único en Georgia.

    Hay más para ver en las esquinas del patio. En la puerta sur, por ejemplo, que contiene la tumba de David 'el Constructor', el rey del siglo XII que fundó este monasterio y muchos otros edificios importantes en la Edad de Oro de Georgia. Todos los que abandonaron el monasterio tuvieron que caminar sobre su tumba. Los restos de una puerta de hierro del siglo XI de Persia todavía cuelgan en la puerta, una vez que el hijo de David llevó a Georgia como botín de guerra.

    De las 2 iglesias más pequeñas, la de San Jorge es la más hermosa. Al igual que la gran iglesia, están restaurando su exterior y está parcialmente cubierta de andamios. No puede ingresar (según los informes, solo abre los fines de semana y a menudo se usa para ceremonias matrimoniales). Pero las puertas dejan una abertura a través de la cual se puede ver el interior: esta es quizás una pintura mural aún más grande que la iglesia principal. Se ha utilizado mucho rojo y azul brillante.

    El horario del minibús permite tener 1 hora en el Monasterio, lo cual es realmente muy poco. Pasé aproximadamente 1,5 horas allí y esperé el último autobús del día (6.20 pm) para llevarme de regreso a Kutaisi. En cuanto a la distancia, se puede caminar a pie y tiene 8 km, pero hay una o dos subidas desagradables en el camino.


    Catedral de Svetitskhoveli

    los Catedral de Svetitskhoveli (Georgiano: სვეტიცხოვლის საკათედრო ტაძარი, svet'icxovlis sak'atedro t'adzari literalmente el Catedral del Pilar Viviente) es una catedral cristiana ortodoxa ubicada en la histórica ciudad de Mtskheta, Georgia, al noroeste de la capital georgiana, Tbilisi. Svetitskhoveli, una obra maestra de las Edades Temprana y Alta & # 8197Middle & # 8197Edad, es reconocida por la UNESCO como un # 8197Patrimonio & # 8197 & # 8197Sitio mundial. Actualmente es la segunda iglesia más grande de Georgia, después de la Catedral Santa & # 8197Trinity & # 8197.

    Svetitskhoveli, conocida como el lugar de enterramiento del manto de Cristo reclamado, ha sido durante mucho tiempo una de las principales iglesias georgianas y ortodoxas y se encuentra entre los lugares de culto más venerados de la región. [1] A lo largo de los siglos, la catedral sirvió como lugar de enterramiento para los reyes. La actual estructura de cruz en cuadrado fue completada entre 1010 y 1029 por el arquitecto medieval georgiano Arsukisdze, aunque el sitio en sí se remonta a principios del siglo IV. La arquitectura exterior de la catedral es un ejemplo bien conservado de la decoración típica del siglo XI.

    Svetitskhoveli se considera un hito cultural en peligro de extinción [2], ha sobrevivido a una variedad de adversidades, y muchos de sus invaluables frescos se han perdido debido a que fueron encalados por las autoridades rusas & # 8197Imperiales. [3]


    La tumba del rey del siglo XI desenterrada en un monasterio ruinoso en Georgia - Historia

    La arquitectura religiosa georgiana es famosa por su mezcla única con la naturaleza. Los monasterios no solo eran santuarios espirituales, sino también fortalezas defensivas, donde la nobleza y la gente común encontraban refugio durante los tiempos difíciles. La catedral de Alaverdi es uno de los pocos ejemplos de monasterios rodeados por una sólida valla de piedra.

    El monasterio de Alaverdi fue construido en el siglo XI por el rey Kakhetian Kvirike sobre los restos de un monasterio establecido por Joseph, uno de los trece padres asirios. Es una de las catedrales más grandes del país, construida sobre una base en forma de cruz. En 2007, el Monasterio de Alaverdi fue incluido en la lista de Patrimonio Tentativo de la UNESCO. Alaverdi se encuentra a 20 km al noroeste de Telavi.

    La prohibición comunista de la religión y la destrucción total de los símbolos sagrados y las pinturas no fueron suficientes para demoler los ocho frescos centenarios conservados en las paredes de Alaverdi. La ubicación de la catedral y la # 8211 en el valle de Alazani, cerca del río Alazani, junto con los ricos frescos y el fino canto georgiano crean una atmósfera serena.


    Contenido

    La primera iglesia del monasterio, Surb Astvatsatsin, fue construida en los años 30 y 40 del siglo X (durante el reinado del rey Abbas I Bagratuni). En 966, el rey Ashot III el Misericordioso y la reina Khosrovanuysh construyeron la Iglesia del Santo Salvador, sus hijos Kyurike (Gurgen) para el trabajo de Smbat [4], fundaron una congregación, una escuela secundaria, clérigos invitados, eruditos y escritores. El abad fundador fue Policarpo, a quien sucedió el erudito Hovhannes.

    En 979, por decreto del rey Smbat II, el complejo del monasterio de Sanahin se convirtió en la sede del obispo recién formado del reino de Kyurikian (hasta mediados del siglo XI), Isaías fue ordenado diócesis de Tashir. Dioscoros Sanahnetsi (1039-1063), proclamado "gran orador", fue uno de los patriarcas. Durante su tiempo, se construyeron la biblioteca y la capilla de San Gregorio, la escuela de cuidados se convirtió en un gran centro educativo, la biblioteca se enriqueció, se escribieron y florecieron muchos manuscritos. Fue estudiado, enseñado y creado por los eruditos monjes Anania Sanahnetsi y Hakobos Karapnetsi. Además de la teología, la escuela enseñó filosofía, retórica, música, medicina, calendarios y otras ciencias. Según la leyenda, enseñó en la escuela - Grigor Magistros Pahlavuni, y la sala construida entre él y Surb Astvatsatsin y entre las iglesias de Surb Amenaprkich se llamó "Seminario Magistros".

    Durante las invasiones selyúcidas y su gobierno, que comenzó en la segunda mitad del siglo XI, así como después de la caída del reino de Kyurik (1113), el monasterio de Sanahin vivió un mal período. A finales del siglo XII, al convertirse en parte de los príncipes Zakarid (Zakaryan) como parte de la provincia de Tashirk, el monasterio restauró su papel en el cuidado y la vida científica y cultural del país. En ese período se llevaron a cabo obras de construcción de gran envergadura. Desde los años 80 del siglo XII hasta los años 30 del siglo XIII se construyeron los vestíbulos de las iglesias del Santo Salvador y Surb Astvatsatsin, el campanario, la librería, la casa de huéspedes (no conservada), la tumba de la familia Zakarid, el arte elevado de Grigor Tuteord y Sargis se erigieron khachkars, la Iglesia del Santo Salvador fue renovada. A finales del siglo XII, se construyó el famoso puente de Sanahin sobre el río Debed, por el que pasa la carretera que conduce al monasterio, y un manantial en el pueblo.

    En los siglos XII-XIII, los padres Grigor Tuteord (que significa san de Tute), Hovhannes Khachents (maestro de los príncipes Zakare e Ivane Zakaryan), Vardan fueron famosos en el monasterio de Sanahin. El abad Grigor Rabunapet (Grigor hijo de Abbas, fue el abad del monasterio de Sanahin desde 1214) tenía una gran reputación, cuyo libro "Debido a los amplios y delicados escritos sobre la cuestión de los santos" también sirvió como libro de texto. El rabino Grigor donó 13 manuscritos al monasterio, escribió otras obras. La actividad normal del monasterio se interrumpió nuevamente durante las invasiones mongolas a partir de la década de 1230 y durante su gobierno. A principios del siglo XIV se debilitó ին a fines del siglo, la casa gobernante de los Zakaryans fue destruida, y el pueblo de Sanahin con sus alrededores y monasterio pasó a ser propiedad de Arghutyan-Yerkaynabazuk (Arghutyan "the Long Arms "hasta principios del siglo XX).

    En los siglos XIV-XV, el arte de la escritura experimentó un nuevo auge en el monasterio de Sanahin (35 de los manuscritos escritos allí se conservan en Matenadaran). El más memorable es el "Kotuk" de Sanahin (manuscrito No. 3032), que contiene la cronología del monasterio, información valiosa sobre la historia de la congregación.

    A mediados del siglo XVII, durante el liderazgo del arzobispo Sargis Arghutyan, se renovaron significativamente las estructuras principales del monasterio, que fueron dañadas por los terremotos. En 1831, el arzobispo Harutyun Ter-Barseghyants, el líder tribal del monasterio, construyó un solo manantial cerca del muro norte (su inscripción en verso se ha conservado en el frente), decodificó las inscripciones y reparó las estructuras. A principios del siglo XX cesó la actividad del monasterio.

    Durante el dominio soviético, el monasterio de Sanahin, como monumento histórico y cultural, estaba bajo protección estatal, y las estructuras se fortalecieron y restauraron. En 1998, por decisión del Gobierno de la República de Armenia, fue entregado a la administración de la Madre Sede de la Santa Etchmiadzin.

    El complejo arquitectónico del monasterio de Sanahin se formó durante unos tres siglos. Cada nuevo edificio se construyó teniendo en cuenta la función operativa de los anteriores, el espacio y las características estilísticas. El complejo incluye las iglesias St. Astvatsatsin y Surb Amenaprkich con sus vestíbulos, el seminario, la capilla St. Grigor, la librería, el campanario, la iglesia St. Hakob, la capilla St. Harutyun, las tumbas familiares de los Kyurikyans, Zakaryans (Zakarid), Arghutyan -Yerkaynabazuk.

    El material de construcción principal de las estructuras es basalto pulido gris claro local, que se utilizó para techos. Las formas arquitectónicas y la decoración son generalmente simples, monumentales, con un énfasis moderado en cornisas, puertas y marcos de ventanas en superficies de paredes planas. La expresión artística de los espacios interiores fue creada por la combinación de cubiertas, barrios, arcos abovedados, cúpulas, con la estructura simple, lógica y simétrica de los pilares que los soportan.

    St. Astvatsatsin (La Iglesia de la Santa Madre de Dios) Editar

    Iglesia El más antiguo de los edificios existentes es la Iglesia de la Santa Madre de Dios, que fue construida durante el reinado del rey Abbas I Bagratuni en los años 30 y 40 del siglo X. La iglesia, alrededor de la cual se forma el complejo, es uno de los primeros ejemplos del subtipo de cúpula cruciforme típica de la arquitectura clásica medieval armenia. El tambor de la cúpula fue originalmente polifacético, que durante la renovación de la iglesia en 1652 se transformó en un cilindro y se coronó con un simple arco cónico. En su interior se conservan algunos vestigios de antiguos frescos. Dentro de la iglesia, en las cuatro esquinas, hay cuatro vestíbulos, y el tabernáculo alto en el lado este es alto.

    Iglesia del Santo Salvador (Katoghike) Editar

    La iglesia de St. Amenaprkich (Santo Salvador, también llamada Katoghike) es el edificio principal y más grande del complejo, construido en el lado sur de la iglesia de St. Astvatsatsin, a 4 m de distancia. Fue construido por la reina Khosrovanush, sentando así las bases del monasterio de Sanahin. La iglesia tiene una posición dominante con su poderoso volumen, se ha convertido en el centro de gravedad de la composición general del complejo. El tipo de estructura vuelve a ser la cúpula de crucería, pero a diferencia de la anterior, tiene ábsides de dos plantas. La iglesia tenía dos entradas en el lado noroeste, la primera de las cuales se cerró más tarde debido a la construcción de la sala intereclesiástica. La fachada este del edificio, las partes adyacentes de las fachadas sur y norte, están formadas por un arco decorativo que descansa sobre elegantes columnas. Hay motivos para creer que continuó, el tambor de la cúpula original de la iglesia y el Tabernáculo Mayor, que fueron destruidos por el terremoto y fueron restaurados con herramientas más simples, fueron decorados de esa manera.

    En la parte superior de la fachada este de la iglesia, justo debajo de la cornisa que corona el jacón, hay una escultura en un marco rectangular con imágenes de Kyurike y Smbat (los nombres están grabados en la parte superior del marco). Años después de la creación de la escultura, el primero de ellos fundó y dirigió el reino Kyurikian, y el segundo reinó en Ani y fue declarado "Cósmico". La escultura los representa de pie uno frente al otro, sosteniendo un modelo de una iglesia en sus manos. Con su contenido, idea inventiva y estilo, esta obra se convirtió en un fenómeno destacado en el arte monumental medieval armenio, fue un precedente para otras esculturas similares (Haghpat, Ani, etc.).

    Las paredes de la Iglesia del Santo Salvador también se cubrieron con frescos (se han conservado vestigios insignificantes). Según los datos litográficos, la iglesia fue completamente renovada por primera vez en 1181 con los esfuerzos del líder del monasterio, Hovhannes Vardapet, y el apoyo de Grigor Tuteord, un amira kurdo. El muro sur dañado por el terremoto fue completamente reconstruido, la cúpula fue completamente reconstruida, como resultado de lo cual se hizo más baja, fortificada y se rellenaron las otras partes medio arruinadas o en ruinas de la estructura. La segunda gran renovación se realizó en 1652, durante la renovación general del monasterio, bajo el liderazgo del arzobispo Sargis Arghutyan bajo el liderazgo de Justa Sargis. Más tarde se hicieron reparaciones menores, en 1815 a expensas del Capitán Solomon Arghutyan y el Príncipe Zakare, y en 1881 bajo el liderazgo y los esfuerzos de Arghutyan Hovsep Parsadanyan.

    Las iglesias Surb Astvatsatsin y Surb Amenaprkich (Katoghike) tenían un vestíbulo común en los años 80 del siglo X, que se menciona en la proclamación del rey Kyurike I en "Kotuk" de Sanahin, mediante la cual presentó dos magníficos candelabros al monasterio. Esta estructura probablemente fue demolida durante la construcción a gran escala en 1181, durante la construcción del nuevo vestíbulo de la Iglesia del Santo Salvador. Este último es un amplio salón central de cuatro columnas y planta cuadrada, construido junto al muro occidental de la iglesia, con el mismo eje y ancho. La puerta exterior se instala en el centro del muro norte. Las columnas gruesas del vestíbulo están conectadas por arcos a las columnas correspondientes de los muros opuestos, dividiendo el espacio interior en grandes secciones centrales marginales de ocho pequeños cuadrados. La plaza central está coronada por una cúpula baja, las esquinas tienen un techo plano y las partes centrales centrales están cubiertas con distritos cilíndricos. Esta compleja estructura plástica espacial recibe una expresión artística especial por los adornos tejidos de las columnas, los gorros, las esculturas simbólicas de las cabezas de los animales. La inscripción grabada en uno de los frescos menciona el nombre del arquitecto, Zhamhayr.

    El vestíbulo de la iglesia de St. Astvatsatsin Editar

    El vestíbulo de la iglesia de St. Astvatsatsin fue construido en 1211 por orden del príncipe Vache Vachutyan, como lo demuestra la inscripción conservada en el muro sur dentro del vestíbulo. El edificio está situado junto a los muros occidentales del vestíbulo de la iglesia y San Amenaprkich que ocupa la esquina formada entre ellos. Se conserva la simetría con respecto a los ejes de las estructuras adyacentes, y el tamaño en dirección este-oeste, por lo que esta combinación se percibe como una estructura completa.

    La planta del vestíbulo es un rectángulo ligeramente alargado en dirección norte-sur, que se divide en tres vasos iguales por dos columnas arqueadas en dirección transversal. Cada uno de ellos está cubierto con un techo cilíndrico con techo a dos aguas, que forma una serie de altas crestas con agudos picos en la fachada occidental. La única fachada totalmente visible del vestíbulo está formada por tres pares de amplios vanos abovedados, que servían de entrada al interior. El vestíbulo tenía un pasillo para iglesias, el otro vestíbulo para el seminario. El interior arquitectónico es simple, sobrio. Las columnas bajas y macizas, al ser uniformes, se diferencian en la decoración de las anclas. Tipológicamente, este vestíbulo es un ejemplo único en la arquitectura armenia.

    Lyceum Editar

    Se desconoce el momento exacto de la construcción del Liceo, pero según el análisis constructivo-estratigráfico se remonta a la primera mitad del siglo XI. La planta del edificio se creó automáticamente debido al estrecho pasillo entre las iglesias de Astvatsatsin y Amenaprkich, que el arquitecto utilizó ingeniosa y convenientemente. Tradicionalmente se dice que esta era la sala del liceo, donde Grigor Magistros leía sus conferencias a los estudiantes sentados en los bancos de piedra alineados a ambos lados.

    Librería Editar

    La librería y la Capilla de San Gregorio fueron construidas en 1063 por iniciativa del Padre Dioscoros Sanahnetsi bajo el liderazgo de la hija de David Anhoghin, la Reina Hranush. Los edificios están ubicados en la parte noreste del complejo, a una distancia de unos 3 m entre sí. En la zona intermedia, frente a la entrada de la librería, se construyó un vestíbulo en el primer cuarto del siglo VIII.

    La librería es la librería armenia más antigua, la más grande en términos de distribución. Se trata de una sala de planta cuadrada, cuyos pilares se colocan en los centros de los cuatro muros, uno a uno, conectados entre sí mediante arcos curvados en ángulo de 45 ° con los muros. Forman un nuevo cuadrado más pequeño incrustado en el perímetro de la sala, sobre el que, en la base, descansa una cúpula circular con ayuda de velas, y en la parte superior, una cúpula abovedada octogonal. Las esquinas de la sala están cubiertas en un caso con una trompeta, en el otro caso con distritos semicilíndricos que se cruzan. Las columnas macizas y de baja masa tienen un diseño ornamental rico y diferente. El plano de los muros está adelgazado por nichos profundos coronados con arcos de medio punto o en forma de flecha, que eran bóvedas para libros o reliquias. La librería ha sido declarada una rica colección de manuscritos ․ Aquí, junto con los manuscritos, se guardaban los objetos preciosos del templo. Por eso el edificio de la biblioteca se llamó Nshkharatun.

    Capilla de San Gregorio Editar

    La Capilla de San Gregorio se encuentra en el límite occidental del complejo, a 12 metros al este de la Iglesia de San Astvatsatsin. Fue construido en 1061 por la reina Hranush, hija de David Anhoghin. La Capilla de San Gregorio es una estructura pequeña con un ancla de tres niveles, circular en el exterior, cruciforme en el interior y una cúpula central de cuatro altares. El plano cilíndrico de la fachada y el marco de la entrada está hecho de elegantes columnas decorativas de mampostería, y las secciones más pesadas de la pared entre los tabernáculos están revestidas con nichos triangulares verticales en el plano. En 1652, la cúpula destruida por el terremoto fue completamente reconstruida, las partes superiores de los muros distorsionaron el aspecto original de la capilla y su simetría.

    Campanario Editar

    El campanario del monasterio (primer cuarto del siglo XIII) es uno de los primeros ejemplos de este tipo. Es un edificio de tres plantas de planta cuadrada, que está coronado por un campanario apoyado en seis columnas. El primer piso es una sencilla sala abovedada con una entrada independiente desde el norte. La entrada asimétrica a la fachada occidental conduce al segundo o tercer piso con escalones de piedra. La segunda planta consta de tres pequeños ábsides contiguos, uno de los cuales tiene un insignificante protocolo constructivo conservado en la fachada de entrada, según el cual el campanario fue construido por Vag, hijo de Abas. El tercer piso es una sala completa, cubierta con la construcción de arcos que se cruzan sostenidos por cuatro pares de columnas, que soportan el campanario. A lo largo del eje de la fachada occidental, una gran cruz esculpida en granito rojo está incrustada en un marco ancho.

    Iglesia de St. Hakob y capilla de St. Harutyun Editar

    Al sureste del monumento principal, a una distancia de unos 70 - 100 m, [9] hay dos pequeñas estructuras medio en ruinas: la iglesia de St. Hakob y la capilla de St. Harutyun. La iglesia es una sala abovedada construida en la segunda mitad del siglo X, con un exterior rectangular y un interior cruciforme. Destruido en 1753, algunas de las piedras se utilizaron en 1815 para renovar la Iglesia del Santo Salvador. La capilla (segunda mitad del siglo XIII) es una sala abovedada rectangular simple con dos tabernáculos orientales iguales y una entrada occidental ricamente diseñada.

    La tumba de los Zakaryans (Zakarid) Editar

    La tumba de los Zakaryans es más única e interesante en términos de composición arquitectónica. Consiste en las partes oriental y occidental adyacentes. La primera (construida a finales del siglo X o principios del XI) es un salón abovedado de medio arco con tres pequeñas capillas levantadas en el techo, la central de forma rectangular y la de borde de planta circular. La parte occidental es un salón abovedado con entrada esculpida y doble techo. Fueron construidos en 1189 por los hermanos Ivane y Zakare sobre las tumbas de Vahram (padre graduado) y Sargis (padre). Se erige una inscripción khachkar en su memoria.

    Khachkars Editar

    About 50 khachkars have been preserved in the vicinity of the monastery. The most famous for its historical value and artistic elaboration is the khachkar of Grigor Tuteordi (work of Mkhitar Kazmich), erected in 1184 under the northern wall of St. Harutyun Church, the khachkar erected in 1215 on the tomb of Sargis, one of the victims of the war against the Emirates next to the wall.

    About 190 lithographs from the 10th-19th centuries have been preserved (on structures, khachkars and tombstones). 19 of them are of construction nature (until 1225), the others contain royal, government proclamations, prayers, memoirs, information on donations to the monastery.

    Leyenda Editar

    The builders of the monastery were father and son. The father laid the walls, and the son cuts the stones. Before he finished the monastery, his son died. Without tearing down the stairs, the father leaves. After a while, he met a man from Shnogh and told him the secret of demolishing the stairs of the monastery. Shnoghetsi comes to Sanahin, demolishes the stairs of the monastery with the horse, as the master says, and gets a lot of money for that.


    From Turrets to Toilets: A Partial History of the Throne Room

    In a catalog assembled for the 2014 Venice Biennale to accompany an exhibition on architectural elements, the bathroom is referred to as “the architectural space in which bodies are replenished, inspected, and cultivated, and where one is left alone for private reflection - to develop and affirm identity.” I think that means it’s where you watch yourself crying in the mirror. As for the toilet specifically, Biennale curator Rem Koolhaas and his researchers, consider it to be the “ultimate” architectural element, “the fundamental zone of interaction--on the most intimate level--between humans and architecture.” So the next time that burrito doesn’t sit right or you had one too many gin and tonics, remember that you’re experiencing a corporeal union with the mother of all arts. Potty humor aside, the privatization and proliferation of the bathroom has really driven new developments in cleanliness and safety and has shaped our buildings.

    The flush toilet was invented in 1596 but didn’t become widespread until 1851. Before that, the “toilet” was a motley collection of communal outhouses, chamber pots and holes in the ground. During the 11th-century castle-building boom, chamber pots were supplemented with toilets that were, for the first time, actually integrated into the architecture. These early bathrooms, known as “garderobes” were little more than continuous niches that ran vertically down to the ground, but they soon evolved into small rooms that protruded from castle walls as distinct bottomless bays (such a toilet was the setting for a pivotal scene in the season finale of "Game of Thrones"). “Garderrobe” is both a euphemism for a closet as well as a quite literal appellation, as historian Dan Snow notes: "The name garderobe - which translates as guarding one's robes - is thought to come from hanging your clothes in the toilet shaft, as the ammonia from the urine would kill the fleas."

    Stepped garderobe shafts at Langley Castle, by Viollet-le-Duc Though it might be named for a closet, the garderrobe actually had a strong resemblance to an aspect of a castle’s defenses. And it works in the same basic way: gravity. And while the garderobe was actually a weak spot in a castle’s defenses, woe be the unassuming invader scaling a castle wall beneath one. Several designs emerged to solve the problem of vertical waste disposal - some spiral up towers, for example, while some fueron entire towers some dropped waste into cesspools, moats, and some just dropped it onto the ground below. Not all medieval compounds were okay with merely dumping excrement onto the ground like so much hot oil. Christchurch monastery (1167) has an elaborate sewage system that separates running water, rain drainage, and waste, which can be seen marked in red seen in the below drawing, which has to be the most beautiful plumbing diagram I have ever seen:

    Sewage diagram of Christchurch Monastery, Canterbury (1167)

    Today, the toilet has been upgraded from architectural polyp to a central design element. A long time ago, when I had dreams of becoming an architect, I was designing a house for a client who wanted to see the television from the toilet and tub but did not want a television in the bathroom. The entire master suite, and thus a large percentage of the building’s second floor, was designed around seeing the views from the bathroom. And that was the second residence in my short career that began with the bathroom. More commonly though, toilets shape the spaces of our skyscrapers.

    Plumbing arrangement in a 19th century New York house Because we can’t simply drop our waste 800 feet off the side of a skyscraper onto a busy metropolitan sidewalk, and because efficient plumbing depends on stacking fixtures that share a common “wet wall,” toilets (and elevators, of course) are the only elements drawn in the plans for high-rise buildings, whose repeating floor slabs are built out later according to a tenant’s needs. Once relegated to the periphery, the toilet is a now an oasis at the center of our busylives, a place where, as Koolhaas wrote, “one is left alone for private reflection - to develop and affirm identity.” To paraphrase Winston Churchill, we shaped our toilets, then our toilet shapes us.


    Contenido

    Many sources agree that Nino was born in the small town of Colastri, in the Roman province of Cappadocia, although a smaller number of sources disagree with this. On her family and origin, the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church have different traditions.

    According to the Eastern Orthodox Church tradition, she was the only child of a famous family. Her father was Roman general Zabulon and her mother Sosana (Susan). On her father's side, Nino was related to St. George, and on her mother's, to the patriarch of Jerusalem, Houbnal I.

    During her childhood, Nino was brought up by the nun Niofora-Sarah of Bethlehem. [2] Nino’s uncle, who was the patriarch of Jerusalem, oversaw her traditional upbringing. Nino went to Rome with the help of her uncle where she decided to preach the Christian gospel in Iberia, known to her as the resting place of Christ’s tunic. According to the legend, Nino received a vision where the Virgin Mary gave her a grapevine cross and said:

    "Go to Iberia and tell there the Good Tidings of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and you will find favour before the Lord and I will be for you a shield against all visible and invisible enemies. By the strength of this cross, you will erect in that land the saving banner of faith in My beloved Son and Lord."

    Saint Nino entered the Iberian Kingdom in Caucasus from the Kingdom of Armenia, where she escaped persecution at the hands of the Armenian King Tiridates III. She had belonged to a community of virgins numbering 35, [3] along with martyr Hripsime, under the leadership of St. Gayane, who preached Christianity in the Armenian Kingdom. They were all, with the exception of Nino, tortured and beheaded by Tiridates. All 35 of the virgins were soon canonised by the Armenian Apostolic Church, including Nino (as St. Nune).

    Contrasting with this, the Roman Catholic tradition, as narrated by Rufinus of Aquileia, says Nino was brought to Iberia not by her own will, but as a slave, and that her family tree is obscure. [4]

    Nino reached the borders of the ancient Georgian Kingdom of Iberia from the south about 320. There she placed a Christian cross in the small town of Akhalkalaki and started preaching the Christian faith in Urbnisi, finally reaching Mtskheta (the capital of Iberia). The Iberian Kingdom had been influenced by the neighbouring Persian Empire which played an important role as the regional power in the Caucasus. The Iberian King Mirian III and his nation worshiped the syncretic gods Armazi and Zaden. Soon after the arrival of Nino in Mtskheta, Nana, the Queen of Iberia requested an audience with the Cappadocian.

    Queen Nana, who suffered from a severe illness, had some knowledge of Christianity but had not yet converted to it. Nino, restoring the Queen's health, won to herself disciples from the Queen's attendants, including a Jewish priest and his daughter, Abiathar and Sidonia. Nana also officially converted to Christianity and was baptized by Nino herself. Mirian, aware of his wife’s religious conversion, was intolerant of her new faith, persecuting it and threatening to divorce his wife if she did not leave the faith. [5] He secluded himself, however, from Nino and the growing Christian community in his kingdom. His isolation to Christianity did not last long because, according to the legend, while on a hunting trip, he was suddenly struck blind as total darkness emerged in the woods. In a desperate state, King Mirian uttered a prayer to the God of St Nino:

    If indeed that Christ whom the Captive had preached to his Wife was God, then let Him now deliver him from this darkness, that he too might forsake all other gods to worship Him. [6]

    As soon as he finished his prayer, light appeared and the king hastily returned to his palace in Mtskheta. As a result of this miracle, the King of Iberia renounced idolatry under the teaching of St Nino and was baptized as the first Christian King of Iberia. Soon, the whole of his household and the inhabitants of Mtskheta adopted Christianity. In 326 King Mirian made Christianity the state religion of his kingdom, making Iberia the second Christian state after Armenia.

    After adopting Christianity, Mirian sent an ambassador to Byzantium, asking Emperor Constantine I to have a bishop and priests sent to Iberia. Constantine, having learned of Iberia’s conversion to Christianity, granted Mirian the new church land in Jerusalem [7] and sent a delegation of bishops to the court of the Georgian King. Roman historian Tyrannius Rufinus in Historia Ecclesiastica writes about Mirian's request to Constantine:

    After the church had been built with due magnificence, the people were zealously yearning for God's faith. So an embassy is sent on behalf of the entire nation to the Emperor Constantine, in accordance with the captive woman's advice. The foregoing events are related to him, and a petition submitted, requesting that priests be sent to complete the work which God had begun. Sending them on their way amidst rejoicing and ceremony, the Emperor was far more glad at this news than if he had annexed to the Roman Empire peoples and realms unknown. [8]

    In 334, Mirian commissioned the building of the first Christian church in Iberia which was finally completed in 379 on the spot where now stands the Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta.

    Nino, having witnessed the conversion of Iberia to Christianity, withdrew to the mountain pass in Bodbe, Kakheti. St Nino died soon after immediately after her death, King Mirian commenced with the building of monastery in Bodbe, where her tomb can still be seen in the churchyard.

    Nino and its variants remains the most popular name for women and girls in the Republic of Georgia. There are currently 88,441 women over age 16 by that name residing in the country, according to the Georgia Ministry of Justice. It also continues to be a popular name for baby girls. [9]

    The Georgian name "Nino" is "Nune" or "Nuneh" in Armenian, thus St. Nino is known as St. Nune in Armenia. Her history as the only one of the 35 nuns of the company of Sts. Gayane and Hripsime to escape the slaughter at the hands of the pagan Armenian King Tiradates III in 301 is recounted in the book "The History of the Armenians" by Movses Khorenatzi (Moses of Khoren), which was written about the year 440.

    The Phoka Nunnery of St. Nino was established in rural Georgia by Abbess Elizabeth and two novices. They originally lived in a nearby house owned by Georgian Orthodox Church head Patriarch Ilia II, then in 1992 moved to the site of an 11th century church to restore it.

    The Sacred Monastery of Saint Nina is the home of a monastic community of Georgian Apostolic Orthodox Christian nuns in the Patriarchate of Georgia's North American Diocese. It is located in Union Bridge, Maryland, USA, and was established in September 2012. [10]


    Contenido

    The 7th-century Chronicle of Fredegar implies that the Merovingians were descended from a sea-beast called a quinotaur:

    It is said that while Chlodio was staying at the seaside with his wife one summer, his wife went into the sea at midday to bathe, and a beast of Neptune rather like a Quinotaur found her. In the event she was made pregnant, either by the beast or by her husband, and she gave birth to a son called Merovech, from whom the kings of the Franks have subsequently been called Merovingians. [3]

    In the past, this tale was regarded as an authentic piece of Germanic mythology and was often taken as evidence that the Merovingian kingship was sacral and the royal dynasty of supernatural origin. [4] Today, it is more commonly seen as an attempt to explain the meaning of the name Merovech (sea-bull): "Unlike the Anglo-Saxon rulers the Merovingians—if they ever themselves acknowledged the quinotaur tale, which is by no means certain—made no claim to be descended from a god". [3]

    In 1906, the British Egyptologist Flinders Petrie suggested that the Marvingi recorded by Ptolemy as living near the Rhine were the ancestors of the Merovingian dynasty. [5]

    In 486 Clovis I, the son of Childeric, defeated Syagrius, a Roman military leader who competed with the Merovingians for power in northern France. He won the Battle of Tolbiac against the Alemanni in 496, at which time, according to Gregory of Tours, Clovis adopted his wife Clotilda's Orthodox (i.e. Nicene) Christian faith. He subsequently went on to decisively defeat the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé in 507. After Clovis's death, his kingdom was partitioned among his four sons. This tradition of partition continued over the next century. Even when several Merovingian kings simultaneously ruled their own realms, the kingdom—not unlike the late Roman Empire—was conceived of as a single entity ruled collectively by these several kings (in their own realms) among whom a turn of events could result in the reunification of the whole kingdom under a single ruler.

    Upon Clovis's death in 511, the Merovingian kingdom included all of Gaul except Burgundy and all of Germania magna except Saxony. To the outside, the kingdom, even when divided under different kings, maintained unity and conquered Burgundy in 534. After the fall of the Ostrogoths, the Franks also conquered Provence. [6] After this their borders with Italy (ruled by the Lombards since 568) and Visigothic Septimania remained fairly stable. [7]

    Division of the kingdom Edit

    Internally, the kingdom was divided among Clovis's sons and later among his grandsons and frequently saw war between the different kings, who quickly allied among themselves and against one another. The death of one king created conflict between the surviving brothers and the deceased's sons, with differing outcomes. Later, conflicts were intensified by the personal feud around Brunhilda. However, yearly warfare often did not constitute general devastation but took on an almost ritual character, with established 'rules' and norms. [8]

    Reunification of the kingdom Edit

    Eventually, Clotaire II in 613 reunited the entire Frankish realm under one ruler. Later divisions produced the stable units of Austrasia, Neustria, Burgundy and Aquitania. [ cita necesaria ]

    The frequent wars had weakened royal power, while the aristocracy had made great gains and procured enormous concessions from the kings in return for their support. These concessions saw the very considerable power of the king parcelled out and retained by leading comites y duces (counts and dukes). Very little is in fact known about the course of the 7th century due to a scarcity of sources, but Merovingians remained in power until the 8th century.

    Weakening of the kingdom Edit

    Clotaire's son Dagobert I (died 639), who sent troops to Spain and pagan Slavic territories in the east, is commonly seen as the last powerful Merovingian King. Later kings are known as rois fainéants [1] ("do-nothing kings"), despite the fact that only the last two kings did nothing. The kings, even strong-willed men like Dagobert II and Chilperic II, were not the main agents of political conflicts, leaving this role to their mayors of the palace, who increasingly substituted their own interest for their king's. [9] Many kings came to the throne at a young age and died in the prime of life, weakening royal power further.

    Return to power Edit

    The conflict between mayors was ended when the Austrasians under Pepin the Middle triumphed in 687 in the Battle of Tertry. After this, Pepin, though not a king, was the political ruler of the Frankish kingdom and left this position as a heritage to his sons. It was now the sons of the mayor that divided the realm among each other under the rule of a single king.

    After Pepin's long rule, his son Charles Martel assumed power, fighting against nobles and his own stepmother. His reputation for ruthlessness further undermined the king's position. Under Charles Martel's leadership, the Franks defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours in 732. After the victory of 718 of the Bulgarian Khan Tervel and the Emperor of Byzantium Leo III the Isaurian over the Arabs led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik prevented the attempts of Islam to expand into eastern Europe, the victory of Charles Martel at Tours limited its expansion onto the west of the European continent. During the last years of his life he even ruled without a king, though he did not assume royal dignity. His sons Carloman and Pepin again appointed a Merovingian figurehead (Childeric III) to stem rebellion on the kingdom's periphery. However, in 751, Pepin finally displaced the last Merovingian and, with the support of the nobility and the blessing of Pope Zachary, became one of the Frankish kings.

    The Merovingian king redistributed conquered wealth among his followers, both material wealth and the land including its indentured peasantry, though these powers were not absolute. As Rouche points out, "When he died his property was divided equally among his heirs as though it were private property: the kingdom was a form of patrimony." [10] Some scholars have attributed this to the Merovingians' lacking a sense of res publica, but other historians have criticized this view as an oversimplification.

    The kings appointed magnates to be comites (counts), charging them with defense, administration, and the judgment of disputes. This happened against the backdrop of a newly isolated Europe without its Roman systems of taxation and bureaucracy, the Franks having taken over administration as they gradually penetrated into the thoroughly Romanised west and south of Gaul. The counts had to provide armies, enlisting their milites and endowing them with land in return. These armies were subject to the king's call for military support. Annual national assemblies of the nobles and their armed retainers decided major policies of war making. The army also acclaimed new kings by raising them on its shields continuing an ancient practice that made the king leader of the warrior-band. Furthermore, the king was expected to support himself with the products of his private domain (royal demesne), which was called the fisc. This system developed in time into feudalism, and expectations of royal self-sufficiency lasted until the Hundred Years' War. Trade declined with the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, and agricultural estates were mostly self-sufficient. The remaining international trade was dominated by Middle Eastern merchants, often Jewish Radhanites.

    Ley Editar

    Merovingian law was not universal law equally applicable to all it was applied to each man according to his origin: Ripuarian Franks were subject to their own Lex Ripuaria, codified at a late date, [11] while the so-called Lex Salica (Salic Law) of the Salian clans, first tentatively codified in 511 [12] was invoked under medieval exigencies as late as the Valois era. In this the Franks lagged behind the Burgundians and the Visigoths, that they had no universal Roman-based law. In Merovingian times, law remained in the rote memorisation of rachimburgs, who memorised all the precedents on which it was based, for Merovingian law did not admit of the concept of creating nuevo law, only of maintaining tradition. Nor did its Germanic traditions offer any code of civil law required of urbanised society, such as Justinian I caused to be assembled and promulgated in the Byzantine Empire. The few surviving Merovingian edicts are almost entirely concerned with settling divisions of estates among heirs.

    Coinage Edit

    Byzantine coinage was in use in Francia before Theudebert I began minting his own money at the start of his reign. He was the first to issue distinctly Merovingian coinage. On gold coins struck in his royal workshop, Theudebert is shown in the pearl-studded regalia of the Byzantine emperor Childebert I is shown in profile in the ancient style, wearing a toga and a diadem. The solidus and triens were minted in Francia between 534 and 679. The denarius (or denier) appeared later, in the name of Childeric II and various non-royals around 673–675. A Carolingian denarius replaced the Merovingian one, and the Frisian penning, in Gaul from 755 to the 11th century.

    Merovingian coins are on display at the Monnaie de Paris in Paris there are Merovingian gold coins at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Cabinet des Médailles.

    Christianity was introduced to the Franks by their contact with Gallo-Romanic culture and later further spread by monks. The most famous of these missionaries is St. Columbanus (d 615), an Irish monk. Merovingian kings and queens used the newly forming ecclesiastical power structure to their advantage. Monasteries and episcopal seats were shrewdly awarded to elites who supported the dynasty. Extensive parcels of land were donated to monasteries to exempt those lands from royal taxation and to preserve them within the family. The family maintained dominance over the monastery by appointing family members as abbots. Extra sons and daughters who could not be married off were sent to monasteries so that they would not threaten the inheritance of older Merovingian children. This pragmatic use of monasteries ensured close ties between elites and monastic properties.

    Numerous Merovingians who served as bishops and abbots, or who generously funded abbeys and monasteries, were rewarded with sainthood. The outstanding handful of Frankish saints who were not of the Merovingian kinship nor the family alliances that provided Merovingian counts and dukes, deserve a closer inspection for that fact alone: like Gregory of Tours, they were almost without exception from the Gallo-Roman aristocracy in regions south and west of Merovingian control. The most characteristic form of Merovingian literature is represented by the Lives of the saints. Merovingian hagiography did not set out to reconstruct a biography in the Roman or the modern sense, but to attract and hold popular devotion by the formulas of elaborate literary exercises, through which the Frankish Church channeled popular piety within orthodox channels, defined the nature of sanctity and retained some control over the posthumous cults that developed spontaneously at burial sites, where the life-force of the saint lingered, to do good for the votary. [13]

    los vitae et miracula, for impressive miracles were an essential element of Merovingian hagiography, were read aloud on saints’ feast days. Many Merovingian saints, and the majority of female saints, were local ones, venerated only within strictly circumscribed regions their cults were revived in the High Middle Ages, when the population of women in religious orders increased enormously. Judith Oliver noted five Merovingian female saints in the diocese of Liège who appeared in a long list of saints in a late 13th-century psalter-hours. [14] El vitae of six late Merovingian saints that illustrate the political history of the era have been translated and edited by Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding, and presented with Liber Historiae Francorum, to provide some historical context. [15]

    Kings Edit

      , king of Burgundy (died 592) , king of Austrasia (died c. 656) , king of Austrasia, son of the former (died 679)

    Queens and abbesses Edit

      (died 502) , queen of the Franks (died 545) (died 544) , Thuringian princess who founded a monastery at Poitiers (died 587)
    • Rusticula, abbess of Arles (died 632)
    • Cesaria II, abbess of St Jean of Arles (died ca 550) , queen of Austrasia (died 613) , queen of Neustria (died 597) , abbess in Metz (died ca 600) , abbess of Moutiers (died 645) , abbess of Laon (died 670) , founding abbess of Marchiennes (died 688) , founding abbess of Nivelles (died 652) , abbess of Andenne (died 693) , abbess of Nivelles (died 658) presented in The Life of St. Geretrude (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996) , abbess of Mauberges (died ca 684) , abbess of Mons (died ca 688) , queen of the Franks (died ca 680), presented in The Life of Lady Bathild, Queen of the Franks (in Fouracre and Gerberding 1996) (died 684)
    • Bertilla, abbess of Chelles (died c. 700) , abbess of Laon (died before 709) , abbess of Pavilly (died 703)

    Bishops and abbots Edit

    Nota bene: All of the listed clergymen are venerated as saints in the Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church.

      (c. 584–675) , Bishop of Metz (c. 588–660) chief counsellor to Dagobert I and bishop of Noyon-Tournai , Bishop of Tours and historian , first Bishop of Liège (c. 636 – c. 700), bishop of Maastricht (Tongeren) , Bishop of Autun , Bishop of Rouen , Bishop of Reims who baptized Clovis I

    Yitzhak Hen stated that it seems certain that the Gallo-Roman population was far greater than the Frankish population in Merovingian Gaul, especially in regions south of the Seine, with most of the Frankish settlements being located along the Lower and Middle Rhine. [16] The further south in Gaul one traveled, the weaker the Frankish influence became. [16] Hen finds hardly any evidence for Frankish settlements south of the Loire. [16] The absence of Frankish literature sources suggests that the Frankish language was forgotten rather rapidly after the early stage of the dynasty. [16] Hen believes that for Neustria, Burgundy and Aquitania, colloquial Latin remained the spoken language in Gaul throughout the Merovingian period and remained so even well in to the Carolingian period. [16] However, Urban T. Holmes estimated that a Germanic language was spoken as a second tongue by public officials in western Austrasia and Neustria as late as the 850s, and that it completely disappeared as a spoken language from these regions only during the 10th century. [17]

    A limited number of contemporary sources describe the history of the Merovingian Franks, but those that survive cover the entire period from Clovis's succession to Childeric's deposition. First among chroniclers of the age is the canonised bishop of Tours, Gregory of Tours. Su Decem Libri Historiarum is a primary source for the reigns of the sons of Clotaire II and their descendants until Gregory's own death in 594, but must be read with account of the pro-church point of view of its author.

    The next major source, far less organised than Gregory's work, is the Chronicle of Fredegar, begun by Fredegar but continued by unknown authors. It covers the period from 584 to 641, though its continuators, under Carolingian patronage, extended it to 768, after the close of the Merovingian era. It is the only primary narrative source for much of its period. Since its restoration in 1938 it has been housed in the Ducal Collection of the Staatsbibliothek Binkelsbingen. [ cita necesaria ] The only other major contemporary source is the Liber Historiae Francorum, an anonymous adaptation of Gregory's work apparently ignorant of Fredegar's chronicle: its author(s) ends with a reference to Theuderic IV's sixth year, which would be 727. It was widely read though it was undoubtedly a piece of Arnulfing work, and its biases cause it to mislead (for instance, concerning the two decades between the controversies surrounding mayors Grimoald the Elder and Ebroin: 652–673).

    Aside from these chronicles, the only surviving reservoirs of historiography are letters, capitularies, and the like. Clerical men such as Gregory and Sulpitius the Pious were letter-writers, though relatively few letters survive. Edicts, grants, and judicial decisions survive, as well as the famous Lex Salica, mentioned above. From the reign of Clotaire II and Dagobert I survive many examples of the royal position as the supreme justice and final arbiter. There also survive biographical Lives of saints of the period, for instance Saint Eligius and Leodegar, written soon after their subjects' deaths.

    Finally, archaeological evidence cannot be ignored as a source for information, at the very least, on the Frankish mode of life. Among the greatest discoveries of lost objects was the 1653 accidental uncovering of Childeric I's tomb in the church of Saint Brice in Tournai. The grave objects included a golden bull's head and the famous golden insects (perhaps bees, cicadas, aphids, or flies) on which Napoleon modelled his coronation cloak. In 1957, the sepulchre of a Merovingian woman at the time believed to be Clotaire I's second wife, Aregund, was discovered in Saint Denis Basilica in Paris. The funerary clothing and jewellery were reasonably well-preserved, giving us a look into the costume of the time. Beyond these royal individuals, the Merovingian period is associated with the archaeological Reihengräber culture.

    The Merovingians play a prominent role in French historiography and national identity, although their importance was partly overshadowed by that of the Gauls during the Third Republic. Charles de Gaulle is on record as stating his opinion that "For me, the history of France begins with Clovis, elected as king of France by the tribe of the Franks, who gave their name to France. Before Clovis, we have Gallo-Roman and Gaulish prehistory. The decisive element, for me, is that Clovis was the first king to have been baptized a Christian. My country is a Christian country and I reckon the history of France beginning with the accession of a Christian king who bore the name of the Franks." [18]

    The Merovingians feature in the novel En busca del tiempo perdido by Marcel Proust: "The Merovingians are important to Proust because, as the oldest French dynasty, they are the most romantic and their descendants the most aristocratic." [19] The word "Merovingian" is used as an adjective at least five times in Swann's Way.

    The Merovingians are featured in the book La Santa Sangre y el Santo Grial (1982) where they are depicted as descendants of Jesus, inspired by the "Priory of Sion" story developed by Pierre Plantard in the 1960s. Plantard playfully sold the story as non-fiction, giving rise to a number of works of pseudohistory among which La Santa Sangre y el Santo Grial was the most successful. The "Priory of Sion" material has given rise to later works in popular fiction, notably El codigo Da Vinci (2003), which mentions the Merovingians in chapter 60. [20]

    The title of "Merovingian" (also known as "the Frenchman") is used as the name for a fictional character and a supporting antagonist of the films La matrix recargada y Las revoluciones de Matrix.


    Forget France – this Eurasian country is ideal for a post-lockdown wine holiday

    Crossing himself after the earthenware qvevri is unsealed, winemaker Gia Gamtkitsulashvili ladles the fresh rkatsiteli wine into a pitcher to a round of applause from an expectant gathering. His qvevri wine is amber, like sap that has frozen in aspic, from vineyards flourishing in the sun-kissed valleys between the snowy Caucasus Mountains.

    “I’m happy,” he says. “It’s been in the qvevri for six months, the acidity is balanced, the colour is light. This is how the oldest wine in the world looks.” If one word finagles its way into the lexis of travel this summer, it might be “qvevri”. These lemon-shaped clay vessels have been used to ferment Georgian wines since the sixth millennia BC – and if Covid-19 continues to disrupt major wine tourism destinations such as France, Georgia is waiting in the wings, well-placed after becoming one of the first countries to accept fully vaccinated passengers, without test or quarantine.

    Some restrictions remain (including a 9pm-5am curfew), yet the Georgian embassy in London expects these to lift soon as their vaccination programme gets under way. “British travellers can come now to enjoy Georgian hospitality and learn about our distinctive culture and wine,” says ambassador Sophie Katsarava. She notes that interest in Georgian wine was already on the rise, with exports to the UK growing 155 per cent during 2020 to a tremendous half a million bottles.

    I arrived in Tbilisi from Armenia in early April, evading travel restrictions with the help of a BBC exemption to cover the aftermath of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. I intended to stay only a few days, but – while exploring my Airbnb’s bohemian locale near Aghmashenebeli Avenue – sought an introduction to Georgian wines at a vintner called Wine Gallery. and promptly extended my stay.

    Wine Gallery’s Victoria Ponomarenko says Georgia possesses 525 grape varieties, of which the white grapes manifest amber under their qvevri technique. This amber colouration is due to the contact of juices fermenting alongside unremoved skins, stems and pips – the tannins remaining high while the natural skin yeast converts sugar into alcohol. But this colour troubles me: it looks like sherry, which I detest, and on my first tasting the amber tannins are overpoweringly bitter.

    Yet Ponomarenko persists, urging me to visit the mountainous eastern region of Kakheti, bordering Russia and Azerbaijan, Georgia’s cradle of winemaking, where 75 per cent of wines are produced. Thus I arrange a three-day tour with Levan Chalauri, who hasn’t guided for a year. “Allowing vaccinated travellers will help our economy to return to normal, as in 2019 we had 6 million visitors, almost twice the Georgian population,” he explains.

    Driving east, vineyards and marani (cellars) dominate farmlands where Chalauri says every household makes its own wine. And upon reaching Kakheti’s wine capital, Sighnaghi, a fortified town overlooking the Alazani Valley, there is little doubt in my mind that wine permeates not just Georgia’s geography, but its spiritual fabric too, transcending a hazy continuum between paganism and Christianity. At Sighnaghi’s 8th-century Bodbe Monastery, where black-robed nuns light crackling candles, are the remains of St Nino, who arrived from Turkey in the 4th century to evangelise the Georgians. She curried favour by hauling a cross made from grape-wood, and her white marble tomb is embellished with a grape motif.

    Her Saintliness probably meant she abstained from partaking in Georgia’s amber nectar, but I didn’t. Wine-tasting is widespread and sessions typically offer flights of five qvevri wines: likely an ubiquitous amber rkatsiteli, a dry saperavi red, and perhaps its semi-sweet cousin, kindzmarauli (enjoyed by Georgia’s most notorious son, the sweet-toothed Stalin). Tastings end – alongside all reasoning – with chacha, a grappa-like spirit with an alcohol content upwards of 50 per cent, distilled from the qvevri pomace.

    I’m already sold on saperavi, but at our first winery in Sighnaghi, Pheasant’s Tears, I undergo a Damascene conversion to the amber side, thunderstruck by a 2018 rkatsiteli: bitter yet minerally, sharply refreshing, and hued like liquid sun. The qvevri they are fashioned in are made by Zaza Kbilashvili, a fourth-generation potter. He is busy making eight 2,500-litre qvevri in his studio nearby, which is open to visitors, hand-building 10cm of clay every three days, before wood-firing them in a brick kiln, the whole process a painstaking three months per jar.

    He coats the interior with beeswax (easier for cleaning with a cherry-bark brush) and applies exterior lime concrete, a natural antiseptic. “Qvevri allow the wines to breathe, and when buried they draw positive energy from the soil and solar system,” he says. Beyond the 11th-century Alaverdi Monastery, radiant in bubblegum-pink peach blossom and where monks ferment a cheeky little semi-sweet red, the seven-room Hotel Babaneuris Winery demonstrates that Georgia has the accommodation to match its wine-tourism ambitions. My room has a Chateau Lafitte view into the Caucasus, framed by lime and elm woodland. The restaurant serves vine-leaf wrapped dolma and allows diners to peer through a glass wall into their production marani where 24 qvevri have disgorged their 2020 vintage.

    “You can watch the harvest and maceration of grapes in September while having breakfast,” says Babaneuris-owner Vakhtang Idoidze, an earnest mountain man from Tusheti, near Chechnya, who learned winemaking from his father and took over this vineyard in 2005. We enter the marani after a breakfast buffet featuring salty mountain cheese and home-made bread.

    “For the first weeks before the qvevri are sealed I stir the wine every three or four hours, or it will end up as vinegar,” says Idoidze. “I am with the qvevri all day long. My wife hates me then.” The grape material that floats upwards must be pushed down into the qvevri depths so it – in his words – can be “reborn”.

    “People think our qvevri technique is unsophisticated, but it’s a technology created over 8,000 years. Who knows how it began? Maybe just wild grapes in a pot that fermented, and the locals got drunk eating them.” We leave late morning to explore ancient Christian sites where wine production features. Kakheti was a kingdom in its own right until incorporation into the Russian Empire in 1801. Archaeologists found evidence at the old capital, Gremi, of winepresses and storage, and when sacked in 1616 by Shah Abbas, the Persian invaders cut out the vines.

    “Throughout history invaders have cut our vines it’s like they wanted to cut out the Georgian soul,” says Chalauri. Likewise, a marani exists at the 6th-century hilltop Nekresi Monastery, founded by an injudicious Assyrian apostle who doused the local Zoroastrians’ fire with holy water and was promptly stoned to death.

    The profoundest impact on Georgia’s wine industry came, however, during Soviet domination. Nuna Kardenakhilishvili, a grandmotherly figure in flowing skirts, remembers it well: her marani in the Velitrikhe Valley uses qvevri she unearthed from the 16th-century. “Qvevri are like us. They are born, they live, and die,” she eulogises. Still, her wines are rustic, indigestibly acidic, although I dare not say anything while she rails against the “snobbish” European winemakers and their fancy vintages. “I say to them my wines are vintage, influenced by the 16th century. They don’t taste of ‘almonds’ or ‘cherries’, just grapes.” She explains that, during Soviet times, villagers – somewhat surprisingly – sold wine to the US. “It was a wild time trying to get it out of the USSR, especially after Gorbachev introduced anti-alcohol prohibition in 1985. The Soviets never cared about quality, only quantity, so grape varieties with low yields like Kisi disappeared.” Then, she laughs. “To up the Soviets’ quota, people were processing grapes in the same tanks as pesticide. Although the Kremlin only got the best wines.”

    By contrast, I found old-world sophistication that evening on Vazisubani Estate, where a serene nobleman’s mansion from 1891 lies amid chestnut and sycamore parkland and 35 hectares of vines. This hotel’s rooms have big bathtubs and parquet flooring, and the wines are smooth and balanced. I love the velvety, appley hint of their 2018 rkhatsiteli and the refinement of a saperavi matured for 10 months post-qvevri in a steel tank, inducing a rioja-like spiciness. Their creator is 11th-generation winemaker Lado Uzunashvili, whose ancestors’ wines were lauded by tsar Nicholas II. He started in wine by cleaning out the qvevri aged 11. “I fell in love with the labour of winemaking, watching the pruning and crushing the grapes,” he says.

    Returning to Tbilisi, my final act entails visiting the National Museum. On its third floor is something profound: the wine equivalent of Lucy the hominin skeleton: a clay-baked qvevri embossed with grapes in which organic and chemical analysis dates Georgian winemaking back 8,000 years. A nascence, either chance or otherwise, that triggered the fermentation of our liquid lust for the ripening grape.


    Ver el vídeo: Georgia, entre Europa y Asia (Noviembre 2021).