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Cuando Hollywood Studios se casó con estrellas gay para mantener su sexualidad en secreto


Durante la Edad de Oro de Hollywood en la década de 1920, los actores y actrices saltaron a la fama, pero solo si adaptaban sus imágenes a las demandas de los grandes estudios. Para los actores LGBT, eso a menudo significaba casarse con una persona del sexo opuesto.

El comienzo del siglo XX representó una época única para las personas LGBT en el país. A lo largo de los locos años veinte, los hombres vestidos como mujeres y la inconformidad de género y la rareza no eran tan tabú en las grandes ciudades como lo serían años después.

La queer se podía apreciar en el escenario, pero en la vida cotidiana de las principales estrellas a menudo se ocultaba en uniones falsas conocidas como "matrimonios lavanda", según Stephen Tropiano, profesor de Estudios de Pantalla en Ithaca College y autor de The Prime Time Closet: Una historia de gays y lesbianas en la televisión.

Estos matrimonios fueron concertados por estudios de Hollywood entre una o más personas homosexuales, lesbianas o bisexuales con el fin de ocultar su orientación sexual al público. Se remontan a principios del siglo XX y continuaron más allá del movimiento de liberación gay de la década de 1960.

Los matrimonios lavanda fueron una solución en parte para las "cláusulas morales" emitidas por los grandes estudios en ese momento. Las cláusulas, introducidas por primera vez por Universal Film Company, permitieron a la compañía descontinuar los salarios de los actores "si pierden el respeto del público". El tipo de comportamiento que se consideró inaceptable varió ampliamente desde la actividad delictiva hasta la asociación con cualquier conducta que fuera considerada indecente o alarmante para la comunidad. Las cláusulas existen hasta el día de hoy.

“Tenemos que recordar que muchas de estas decisiones que se estaban tomando eran decisiones económicas”, dice Tropiano. "Se trataba de una persona que se aferraba a su carrera".

Uno de los primeros matrimonios lavanda especulados fue la unión en 1919 del actor de cine mudo y símbolo sexual temprano Rudolph Valentino y la actriz Jean Acker, quien se rumoreaba que era lesbiana. En la noche de bodas de la pareja, Acker aparentemente se arrepintió rápidamente del matrimonio y encerró a su nuevo esposo fuera de su habitación de hotel, según el informe. Los New York Times. Poco después, se divorciaron.

Valentino también se casó con la diseñadora de vestuario Natacha Rambova en 1923, en un momento en que su carrera comenzaba a despegar y los papeles que interpretaba eran vistos como menos típicamente masculinos, como en la película "Monsieur Beaucaire" en 1924. Su matrimonio con Rambova terminó en 1925, lo que dejó a algunos especulando que los matrimonios del “pólvora rosa” (un apodo que Valentino adquirió después de interpretar papeles afeminados en la pantalla) fueron encubrimientos para mantener intacta la reputación del símbolo sexual.

Identificar cuántas parejas de Hollywood se casaron para ocultar su sexualidad es, por supuesto, problemático, ya que se basa principalmente en especulaciones..

“Creo que lo más difícil para un historiador es analizar lo que [es] el rumor y lo que en realidad es un hecho”, dice Tropiano.

Una fuente de especulación comúnmente citada son las memorias de Scotty Bowers, Servicio completo: Mis aventuras en Hollywood y la vida sexual secreta de las estrellas. El relato de Bowers detalla encuentros sexuales, homosexuales y heterosexuales, que, según él, organizó y en los que participó, a partir de 1946.

Bowers escribió que había estado involucrado sexualmente con el actor principal Cary Grant y su compañero de cuarto, Randolph Scott, durante más de una década. En ese momento, Grant estaba pasando por cinco matrimonios con mujeres. La hija de Grant, Jennifer Grant, ha disputado las acusaciones, a través de su portavoz, diciendo en 2012 que su padre era "muy heterosexual", según Los New York Times.

Grant murió en 1986, y muchos de los sujetos cuyas vidas describe Bowers también han fallecido. Algunos han cuestionado si los relatos de Bowers en la autobiografía y el documental correspondiente de 2017 Scotty y la historia secreta de Hollywood, son precisos. Pero el autoproclamado "reparador" incluye detalles y fotografías que, según él, respaldan sus afirmaciones.

Entre los matrimonios lavanda más especulados se encontraba entre el afamado actor Rock Hudson y su secretaria Phyllis Gates. Se casaron en 1955 y se separaron dos años después, luego de que los rumores sobre su homosexualidad e infidelidad comenzaran a acumularse.

Las oleadas de rumores y especulaciones sobre los asuntos de Hudson se generalizaron tanto que incluso ayudaron a fomentar el crecimiento del periodismo sensacionalista de celebridades. La publicación Confidencial se hizo popular a mediados de la década de 1950 al presentar noticias salaces de celebridades. El tabloide sacó a la luz a figuras populares como Hudson antes de que la salida fuera siquiera una cosa. A pesar de la cobertura, Hudson nunca abordó públicamente su orientación sexual antes de morir de SIDA en 1985.

Algunos actores homosexuales optaron por vivir abiertamente, a pesar del riesgo. En la década de 1930, el actor William Haines se negó a ocultar su relación con su pareja. Haines fue contratado con MGM en las décadas de 1920 y 1930, mientras vivía también con un ex marinero llamado Jimmy Shields.

Incluso con el conocimiento común, aunque tácito, de que los dos hombres tenían una relación sentimental, la popularidad de Haines no se vio afectada hasta años después. Fue entonces cuando le dieron un ultimátum, o se casaría con una mujer o sería despedido por MGM, según Tropiano.

“[Haines] tuvo que elegir entre deshacerse de su pareja masculina y tener una carrera”, dice Tropiano. "Y en realidad eligió a la pareja masculina".

Luego, Haines dejó atrás la pantalla plateada para crear un exitoso negocio de diseño de interiores con su socio. Ahora a menudo se le considera una de las primeras estrellas abiertamente homosexuales de Hollywood.

Los matrimonios lavanda se volvieron menos frecuentes en las décadas de 1960 y 1970 a medida que el movimiento por los derechos de los homosexuales ganó impulso después de los disturbios de Stonewall de 1969.

Aunque la representación en el cine y la televisión todavía era escasa, la vida real de las estrellas en la pantalla (heterosexuales, homosexuales o bisexuales) no estaba dictada por los estudios tanto como en el pasado.


La historia secreta del Hollywood gay finalmente obtiene su película

Matt Tyrnauer estaba en la casa de Gore Vidal en Hollywood Hills unos años antes de su muerte cuando Vidal de repente proclamó que quería ver a alguien llamado Scotty.

"Le dije: '¿Quién es Scotty?'", Me dijo Tyrnauer. "Y él dijo: 'Scotty era mi proxeneta'".

Tyrnauer, un escritor de Vanity Fair desde hace mucho tiempo que ha dirigido varias películas, dijo que le pidió a Vidal que explicara más. Vidal comenzó a describir una gasolinera en Hollywood Boulevard cuando Tyrnauer se dio cuenta de que había oído hablar de Scotty antes y de la gasolinera.

"Espera un minuto, esto es los gasolinera que era un burdel? " recuerda haberle preguntado a Vidal.

Scotty, cuyo nombre completo es Scotty Bowers, un ex infante de marina, se ganó el título de "Proxeneta de las estrellas" en los años posteriores a la Segunda Guerra Mundial, cuando realizó una operación sexual en un remolque detrás de la gasolinera. El tráiler llegó a servir como un escape para los miembros homosexuales y bisexuales de Hollywood durante un período especialmente homofóbico en su industria.

"Si eras gay o bisexual y una persona prominente en Hollywood en el período posterior a la Segunda Guerra Mundial, se te prohibía vivir una vida auténtica en público o, en muchos casos, en privado, porque había muchos peligros", dijo Tyrnauer. dijo.

A lo largo de su carrera, el excéntrico Bowers, ahora de 95 años, brindó servicios a personas como Cary Grant, Cole Porter y Katharine Hepburn, dice, acumulando una reputación encubierta en Hollywood y como un proxeneta sin prejuicios y positivo al sexo. Desarrolló amistades con gigantes culturales como el investigador sexual Alfred Kinsey y Vidal, quien finalmente presentó a Bowers a Tyrnauer.

El resultado de esa reunión es "Scotty y la historia secreta de Hollywood", un documental descaradamente lascivo que llegó a los cines este mes. En la historia de la vida de Bowers, Tyrnauer encontró una manera de ensalzar una versión sub-rosa menos lavada de la era dorada de Hollywood. Aunque la mayoría de los presuntos clientes de Bower están muertos ahora y, por lo tanto, son incapaces de verificar o negar sus relatos, Tyrnauer cree que los cuentos alternativos de Bowers son valiosos, que refutan la narrativa heterosexual y mojigata de Los Ángeles de mediados de siglo.

La semana pasada hablé con Tyrnauer sobre hacer la película, conocer a Bowers y el lado excitante de Hollywood que ha permanecido encerrado durante tanto tiempo. Esa conversación, que se reproduce a continuación, se ha editado y condensado para mayor claridad.

Esta película se centra en una época en Hollywood cuando era más aceptable ser adúltero que homosexual, hubo cláusulas de moral [eso hacía que ser gay fuera una ofensa grave] y los escuadrones de vicio y las revistas sacaban gente. Luego entra este tipo Scotty Bowers. Alguien en la película dice que solo estaban esperando que llegara alguien como él. Entonces, ¿quién era Bowers? ¿Y qué servicio, exactamente, estaba brindando a estas personas?

Scotty Bowers era un infante de marina muy guapo que salió del Pacífico Sur en la Segunda Guerra Mundial, terminó en Los Ángeles a la edad de, creo, 22 años y rápidamente encontró dos tipos de trabajo.

Uno era empleado de una gasolinera en la estación Richfield Oil en la intersección de Hollywood Boulevard y Van Ness. El otro tipo de trabajo que hizo Scotty fue brindar servicios sexuales a miembros del elenco de élite de Hollywood.

A veces se le conoce como el "proxeneta de las estrellas", aunque creo que "proxeneta" es un término severo que conduce a pensamientos automáticamente peyorativos. Scotty es realmente una figura mucho más positiva que permitió que las estrellas, que en realidad fueron víctimas de las restricciones impuestas por los estudios a través de cláusulas de moralidad, llevaran vidas auténticas.

Los estudios mismos se controlaban a sí mismos y, a través de las cláusulas de moral, tenían un control estricto sobre las estrellas de cine. Luego estaba el escuadrón contra el vicio dirigido por el Departamento de Policía de Los Ángeles, que equivalía a una Gestapo sexual, que perseguía a personas que tenían algo más que relaciones heteronormativas y, a menudo, se coludía con la prensa para incriminar, extorsionar y humillar a las personas que solo estaban tratando de vivir. vidas auténticas.

¿Qué te atrajo de la historia de Bowers?

Vi la oportunidad de hacer una película sobre la historia alternativa de Hollywood o, de hecho, mostrar la historia alternativa de Hollywood a través de un solo protagonista que todavía vive a los 95 años. El hecho de que él era una especie de alcalde del mundo sexual encubierto de esta ciudad tan significativa lo convierte en un protagonista extremadamente importante para una película que quiere llenar los espacios en blanco y mostrar, antes de que sea demasiado tarde, una imagen completa de exactamente lo que estaba sucediendo en la época dorada del sistema de estudio.

Lo sigues después de que haya escrito este libro sobre su vida. Dice que en un momento escribió el libro para mostrar que algunas de estas personas en Hollywood son solo personas, personas desarrolladas y completamente formadas, como cualquier otra persona. ¿Hiciste esta película por una razón similar?

Vi la película desde el principio como una película política. Hollywood y Los Ángeles no son solo grandes ciudades o lugares famosos. A partir de hace 100 años, el sistema de estudio creó el mito estadounidense, y ese mito luego se extendió por todo el mundo. Y en cierto punto, la narrativa que Hollywood insistió en producir fue una que retrató los estilos de vida heterosexuales blancos como la única opción moral para vivir una vida decente. Esto fue muy intencionado y, al final, bastante corrupto.

Creo que es importante que haya más de lo que parece en la ciudad de la empresa que produjo estos mitos perdurables.

El libro de Bowers nombra nombres, y en tu película entra en detalles sobre las preferencias sexuales particulares de algunas de estas celebridades. Me hizo pensar mucho en la política de sacar a los muertos. Se trata un poco en tu película. Hay un clip de mujeres en "The View" que lo discuten, y algunas personas le preguntan al respecto en algunas de sus firmas de libros. ¿Fue eso algo con lo que lidiaste?

Creo que Scotty lo expresa mejor en la película cuando alguien se enfrenta a él y le dice, estoy parafraseando, "¿No te sentiste culpable por escribir un libro que lo cuente todo? ¿Qué pasa si alguien de los nietos de tu libro se entera? " Scotty responde, con bastante sensatez, "¿Qué hay de malo en ser gay?"

Estas son figuras públicas, y algunas de ellas son figuras públicas extremadamente importantes. Ocupan un lugar único en la vieja psique debido al poder de Hollywood. Si vamos a tener muchas biografías de Cary Grant, hacer que todas sean relatos claros de quién era Cary Grant no solo es deshonesto, sino quizás dañino. Yo plantearía esta pregunta: ¿No es relevante saber que Miguel Ángel era gay? Si estás haciendo una biografía de Miguel Ángel que lo retrata como un hombre heterosexual, creo que eso le está haciendo un flaco favor al lector, por decir lo mínimo. Entonces, ¿por qué no querríamos conocer el espectro completo de la vida privada de las figuras históricas cuando estamos estudiando tan detalladamente a estas personas casi 100 años después de la cima de su fama?

Bowers también parece haber invertido mucho tiempo y pensado en eso. Dijo que podría haber sido un secreto para las personas ajenas a Hollywood. Pero dentro de sus círculos sociales, muchas personas sabían que estas personas no eran completamente heterosexuales, incluso si no lo hacían públicamente.

También dice muy sabiamente: "Quería mostrarle a la gente que las personas siguen siendo personas", y esa es también su forma de expresarlo. ¿Por qué poner a una estrella de cine como Cary Grant o Katharine Hepburn en un pedestal higienizado e insistir en adorar una imagen artificial que fue pulida por una máquina publicitaria? Si te importa tanto conocer los detalles de las vidas de Katharine Hepburn y Cary Grant y Tyrone Power y todas las demás grandes figuras de la época, ¿por qué no conocer el espectro completo? ¿Por qué insistir en seguir perpetrando una versión pura y simple de sus biografías? Simplemente no tiene ningún sentido para mí, y creo que en realidad es una forma de homofobia.

El metraje dentro de sus casas es muy interesante. Resulta obvio que Bowers es una especie de acaparador. ¿Qué sacaste de eso?

Bueno, él es un acaparador, por decir lo menos, y yo soy un fanático del orden, así que estar filmando en el mundo de un acaparador durante dos años fue interesante para mí. Tenía sus elementos perturbadores, porque me parece perturbador el acaparamiento, al igual que mucha gente, pero también tenía sus ventajas como cineasta porque no tiraba nada. Pudimos excavar en algunas de sus unidades de almacenamiento algunas pruebas muy convincentes de su existencia como la señora de la estación de servicio, incluidas decenas de fotos de la época que no había visto desde el momento en que fueron tomadas.

En cuanto a lo que significa el acaparamiento de Scotty, lo presento sin adornos en la película. Dejo a la interpretación de los espectadores y de la comunidad psiquiátrica decir precisamente lo que simboliza. Si tuviera que adivinar, y esta es una suposición sin reservas, creo que apunta a una gran pérdida en su vida personal, porque él la tuvo. Desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial y la muerte de su hermano, también infante de marina, hasta la muerte de su hija por un aborto fallido a finales de los 60, ha habido muchos golpes dolorosos.

Parece que además de las tragedias personales que ha enfrentado, su tiempo en la guerra realmente lo afectó por el resto de su vida.

Realmente es el chico totalmente estadounidense del siglo XX. Es mucho más sincero que la mayoría de ellos, por lo que te está contando las partes que muchos dejaron fuera.

Kinsey y Bowers eran amigos, ¿verdad? Ese, para mí, fue uno de los personajes más interesantes para entrar en la película. ¿Sabes algo sobre esa amistad y lo que atrajo a Kinsey a Bowers?

Sí. Llamé al Instituto Kinsey en [la Universidad de Indiana en] Bloomington, y hablé con uno de los investigadores allí, quien dijo que estaba muy familiarizado con Scotty Bowers porque había un archivo muy grande sobre Scotty en el archivo personal del Dr. Kinsey, incluida la correspondencia , postales y cartas escritas por Scotty al Dr. Kinsey. Scotty fue una fuente y un recurso importante para Kinsey, fuente porque Kinsey lo entrevistó para la base de datos de su innovador libro [Comportamiento sexual en el hombre humano], que realmente cambió toda la ecuación del sexo y la sexualidad en todo el mundo cuando se publicó.

Kinsey buscó a Scotty como sujeto porque intentó encontrar ciertos unicornios sexuales que pudieran mostrarle espectros de sexualidad que nunca fueron discutidos e inaccesibles para la investigación médica hasta ese momento. Scotty era una de esas personas, según él. Kinsey quería saber sobre las actividades de Scotty, y Scotty, que era un libro abierto, al menos en ese período para un médico que estaba dispuesto a trabajar con él de manera confidencial, le contó todo y luego lo ayudó con esta investigación presentándole mundos que Kinsey haría. normalmente no tienen acceso a los mundos ocultos de la misma sexualidad en Los Ángeles en ese momento.

Esto llega a uno de los puntos principales de la película, que es que el mundo gay en Hollywood tenía que ser un secreto porque las consecuencias de ser abierto eran demasiado espantosas. Lo despedirían si trabajara para un estudio, o podría ser arrestado por la brigada de vicio del Departamento de Policía de Los Ángeles, o simplemente podría ser humillado o condenado al ostracismo. No fue un momento fácil para ser gay, especialmente en una ciudad que tenía tantos focos sobre su población y su entorno. Así que Scotty le presentó a Kinsey a Rock Hudson y a muchas otras personas en la ciudad que estaban ansiosas por conocer a la persona que les mostró, quizás por primera vez, que no eran degenerados, monstruos o forajidos sexuales, sino que eran seres humanos normales.

Alguien en la película dice que pensó que Bowers era casi una leyenda urbana por un tiempo, pero obviamente obtuviste un acceso significativo a él. ¿Estaba abierto al documental desde el principio? ¿Cómo fue tu relación con él?

La persona que dijo eso fue William Mann, un historiador y biógrafo de Hollywood muy estimado. Dijo que las fuentes le dijeron durante años que tienes que hablar con Scotty Bowers para confirmar gran parte de la información sobre las sexualidades desconocidas o no contadas previamente de figuras clave de la colonia cinematográfica, y bromea: “Empecé a pensar que Scotty era una leyenda urbana porque escuché mucho sobre él, pero nunca pude averiguar cómo encontrarlo ".

Así que descubrí cómo encontrarlo a través de Gore Vidal, quien me lo presentó. Había oído hablar de él durante años a través de fuentes en Hollywood y temas de artículos sobre los que había escrito. La persona que me habló de Scotty fue, de hecho, Merv Griffin, quien mencionó la gasolinera. No mencionó a Scotty, pero dijo que había una estación de servicio en Hollywood Boulevard donde solía meterse en problemas, que era su eufemismo para la actividad del mismo sexo, según creo.

En ese momento, yo era un escritor a tiempo completo, editor general de la revista Vanity Fair, y comencé a tomar notas sobre esta misteriosa estación de servicio que parecía ser una especie de historia importante no contada sobre el mundo secreto del Hollywood gay. . Un día, estaba sentado con Gore Vidal en su sala de estar en Hollywood Hills, y él soltó de la nada: "Quiero ver a Scotty". Le dije: "¿Quién es Scotty?" Y él dijo: "Scotty era mi proxeneta", y yo dije: "Bueno, cuéntame más".

Dijo: "Teníamos una estación de servicio en Hollywood Boulevard", e inmediatamente me levanté de la silla y dije: "Espera un minuto, esto es los gasolinera que era un burdel? " Y él dijo: "Sí, lo conocí allí en 1948", lo que Scotty me confirmó. Se había vuelto a conectar con Scotty en los últimos cinco años de su vida. La próxima vez que fui a la casa de Gore, Scotty estaba allí. Así lo conocí y gracias al respaldo de Vidal, realmente tuve la confianza de Scotty desde el principio.

Es asombroso lo que hará por ti un respaldo de Gore Vidal, ¿sabes?

Bueno, en esa área fue lo último. Te daré una línea que no le he dado a nadie más: Friends of Gore me especuló cuando se publicó el libro de Scotty que este era el último "Fuck you" de Gore a Hollywood.

¿En serio? ¿Por qué cree que fue?

Porque Vidal era un hombre muy valiente y gay, y creo que conocía todos los secretos de Hollywood, o la mayoría de ellos. Pensó que era ridículo que estuvieran tan protegidos y tan hipócritas, y creo que sabía a quién acudir para volar la tapa. De hecho, ayudó a Scotty a publicar el libro pocos años antes de la muerte de [Vidal].

Esta película me dejó pensando en la política de ser gay en Hollywood hoy. En comparación, ¿dónde crees que está Hollywood en 2018?

Como en cualquier gran ciudad, las cosas están mucho mejor. Ha habido avances extraordinarios en las habilidades de las personas con identidades sexuales distintas a las de hetero para prosperar y encontrar aceptación. Pero aún queda mucho camino por recorrer. En el negocio del cine en particular, hay un enigma, que es que se piensa que el éxito de muchas películas depende de las fantasías sexuales del espectador, y se presume que con frecuencia esas fantasías son heterosexuales, y supongo que el temor es que si el El espectador sabe que el protagonista o la protagonista principal están interesados ​​en el mismo sexo en su vida fuera de la pantalla, el escenario en pantalla podría no funcionar para ellos.

Supongo que es por eso que no hay muchos hombres y mujeres destacados, pero eso es solo una suposición de mi parte, y estoy seguro de que a medida que la cultura avanza y la adopción de identidades sexuales más flexibles y la fluidez sexual continúa entre generaciones más jóvenes y más sabias que esos individuos tomarán estas decisiones algún día y no serán tan estrictos en sus creencias tribales sobre las identidades sexuales convencionales.


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Se sospechaba que algunas de las estrellas más brillantes de la Edad de Oro de Hollywood estaban en matrimonios "lavanda", por el bien de sus carreras. Durante la Edad de Oro de Hollywood en la década de 1920, los actores y actrices saltaron a la fama, pero solo si adaptaban sus imágenes a las demandas de los grandes estudios. Para los actores LGBT, eso a menudo significaba casarse con una persona del sexo opuesto. El comienzo del siglo XX representó una época única para las personas LGBT en el país. A lo largo de los locos años veinte, los hombres vestidos como mujeres y la inconformidad de género y la rareza no eran tan tabú en las grandes ciudades como lo serían años después.

La queer se podía apreciar en el escenario, pero en la vida cotidiana de las principales estrellas a menudo se ocultaba en uniones falsas conocidas como `` matrimonios lavanda '', según Stephen Tropiano, profesor de estudios de pantallas en Ithaca College y autor de The Prime Time Closet: A Historia de gays y lesbianas en televisión. Estos matrimonios fueron concertados por estudios de Hollywood entre una o más personas homosexuales, lesbianas o bisexuales con el fin de ocultar su orientación sexual al público. Se remontan a principios del siglo XX y continuaron más allá del movimiento de liberación gay de la década de 1960.

Los matrimonios lavanda fueron una solución en parte para las "cláusulas morales" emitidas por los grandes estudios en ese momento. Las cláusulas, introducidas por primera vez por Universal Film Company, permitieron a la compañía descontinuar los salarios de los actores "# 039" si pierden el respeto del público ". El tipo de comportamiento que se consideró inaceptable varió ampliamente desde la actividad delictiva hasta la asociación con cualquier conducta que se considerara indecente o alarmante para la comunidad. Las cláusulas existen hasta el día de hoy. “Tenemos que recordar que muchas de estas decisiones que se estaban tomando eran decisiones económicas”, dice Tropiano. "Se trataba de una persona que se aferraba a su carrera".

Uno de los primeros matrimonios lavanda especulados fue la unión en 1919 del actor de cine mudo y símbolo sexual temprano Rudolph Valentino y la actriz Jean Acker, de quien se rumoreaba que era lesbiana. En la noche de bodas de la pareja, Acker aparentemente se arrepintió rápidamente del matrimonio y encerró a su nuevo esposo fuera de su habitación de hotel, según un artículo de The New York Times del 8 de noviembre de 1991. Poco después, se divorciaron. Valentino también se casó con la diseñadora de vestuario Natacha Rambova en 1923, en un momento en que su carrera comenzaba a despegar y los papeles que interpretaba eran vistos como menos típicamente masculinos, como en la película "Monsieur Beaucaire" en 1924. Su matrimonio con Rambova terminó en 1925, lo que dejó a algunos especulando que los matrimonios del “pólvora rosa” (un apodo que Valentino adquirió después de interpretar papeles afeminados en la pantalla) fueron encubrimientos para mantener intacta la reputación del símbolo sexual.

Identificar cuántas parejas de Hollywood se casaron para encubrir su sexualidad es, por supuesto, problemático, ya que se basa principalmente en la especulación. Una fuente de especulación comúnmente citada son las memorias de Scotty Bowers, Full Service: My Adventures in Hollywood and the Secret Sex Lives of the Stars. El relato de Bowers detalla encuentros sexuales, homosexuales y heterosexuales, que él afirma que organizó y en los que participó, a partir de 1946. Bowers escribió que había estado involucrado sexualmente con el actor principal Cary Grant y su compañero de cuarto, Randolph Scott, durante más de un año. década. En ese momento, Grant estaba pasando por cinco matrimonios con mujeres. La hija de Grant, Jennifer Grant, ha disputado las acusaciones, a través de su portavoz, diciendo en 2012 que su padre era "muy heterosexual", según The New York Times.

Cary Grant murió en 1986, y muchos de los sujetos cuyas vidas describe Bowers también han fallecido. Algunos han cuestionado si los relatos de Bowers & # 039 en la autobiografía, y el correspondiente documental de 2017 Scotty and the Secret History of Hollywood, son precisos. Pero el autoproclamado "reparador" incluye detalles y fotografías que, según él, respaldan sus afirmaciones.

Entre los matrimonios lavanda más especulados se encontraba entre el afamado actor Rock Hudson y su secretaria Phyllis Gates. Se casaron en 1955 y se separaron dos años después, luego de que los rumores sobre su homosexualidad e infidelidad comenzaran a acumularse. Las oleadas de rumores y especulaciones sobre los asuntos de Hudson se generalizaron tanto que incluso ayudaron a fomentar el crecimiento del periodismo sensacionalista de celebridades. los
La publicación Confidential se hizo popular a mediados de la década de 1950 al presentar noticias salaces de celebridades. El tabloide sacó a la luz a figuras populares como Hudson antes de que la salida fuera siquiera una cosa. A pesar de la cobertura, Hudson nunca abordó públicamente su orientación sexual antes de morir de SIDA en 1985.

Algunos actores homosexuales optaron por vivir abiertamente, a pesar del riesgo. En la década de 1930, el actor William Haines se negó a ocultar su relación con su pareja. Haines fue contratado con MGM en las décadas de 1920 y 1930, mientras vivía también con un ex marinero llamado Jimmy Shields. Incluso con el conocimiento común, aunque tácito, de que los dos hombres estaban involucrados románticamente, la popularidad de Haines no se vio afectada hasta años después. Fue entonces cuando le dieron un ultimátum, o se casaría con una mujer o sería despedido por MGM, según Tropiano. “Haines tuvo que elegir entre deshacerse de su pareja masculina y tener una carrera”, dice Tropiano. "Y en realidad eligió a su pareja masculina". Luego, Haines dejó atrás la pantalla plateada para crear un exitoso negocio de diseño de interiores con su socio. Ahora a menudo se le considera una de las primeras estrellas abiertamente homosexuales de Hollywood.

Los matrimonios lavanda se volvieron menos frecuentes en las décadas de 1960 y 1970 a medida que el movimiento por los derechos de los homosexuales ganó impulso después de los disturbios de Stonewall de 1969. Aunque la representación en el cine y la televisión todavía era escasa, la vida real de las estrellas en la pantalla: heterosexuales, homosexuales o bisexuales —No fueron dictados por los estudios tanto como lo habían sido en el pasado.


Viejas estrellas de Hollywood que eran secretamente homosexuales

A menudo pensamos que Hollywood acepta a hombres y mujeres homosexuales. Después de todo, tenemos a Alan Cumming, Neil Patrick Harris, Jodie Foster y Ellen DeGeneres que están orgullosos. Hollywood también nos ha dado excelentes películas sobre las relaciones entre personas del mismo sexo y los derechos de los homosexuales, como Secreto en la montaña para Leche.

Pero hubo una época más oscura en Hollywood cuando las estrellas homosexuales tenían que mantener su sexualidad lo más privada posible. La sociedad no era tan tolerante y Hollywood no tenía ningún interés, en ese momento, en desafiar las normas de la sociedad.

Muchos estudios de cine tenían "cláusulas morales" en sus contratos. Estos amenazarían la carrera de una estrella si se descubriese que tienen relaciones con el mismo sexo.

Los estudios estuvieron felices de ayudar al equipo antivicio del LAPD a cazar a estas estrellas. A su vez, el LAPD estaba feliz de ayudar a los paparazzi a exponer estas estrellas y arruinar sus carreras de la noche a la mañana.

Uno de los grandes iconos del Hollywood temprano fue James Dean. Se ganó el corazón de muchas mujeres estadounidenses con su interpretación de Jim Stark en Rebelde sin causa. Pero no eran solo las mujeres a las que les gustaba el actor. Se rumorea que el propio James Dean estaba interesado en los hombres.

Una anécdota popular promovida por Dean fue que evitó ser reclutado para la Guerra de Corea al "besar al médico". Durante su corta vida, hubo rumores de que Dean era gay. Cuando se le pidió que discutiera el asunto, según los informes, dijo: "No, no soy homosexual, pero tampoco voy por la vida con una mano atada a la espalda".

Se creía que Dean buscaba relaciones con la leyenda de Hollywood Marlon Brando, así como con el ejecutivo de publicidad Rogers Brackett.

Décadas después de su fallecimiento, James Dean sigue siendo uno de los símbolos sexuales más grandes que Hollywood haya producido. Sigue siendo un rompecorazones para muchas mujeres ... ¡así como para muchos hombres! Se le considera un ícono gay y tal vez si los tiempos hubieran sido diferentes, habría sido más abierto sobre sus sentimientos por los hombres.

Pero James Dean no era el único símbolo sexual conocido por tener relaciones entre personas del mismo sexo. Muchos hombres deben haberse quedado boquiabiertos ante la imagen del vestido de Marilyn Monroe volando en El picor siete años. Pero debe haber habido muchas mujeres que hicieron lo mismo.

En una biografía de 2012 del ícono, la autora Lois Banner afirmó que Marilyn Monroe deseaba mujeres y tenía aventuras con ellas. Se creía que supuestamente tuvo aventuras con Elizabeth Taylor, Joan Crawford, Marlene Dietrich y Barbara Stanwyck.

La actriz Judy Garland supuestamente afirmó que Marilyn Monroe una vez la persiguió en una fiesta. También hubo rumores de que su matrimonio con el jugador de béisbol Joe DiMaggio terminó porque prefería a las mujeres.

¿Sabías que estos dos grandes símbolos sexuales probablemente eran secretamente homosexuales? Antes de contarte aún más sobre las viejas estrellas de Hollywood que eran secretamente homosexuales, por favor dale Me gusta a este video y suscríbete a nuestro canal para ver historias más únicas y fascinantes. Ahora, volvamos al video ...

No fueron solo los símbolos sexuales más jóvenes los que se informó que buscaban relaciones entre personas del mismo sexo. Una de las parejas legendarias de Hollywood fue el actor Spencer Tracy y la actriz Katharine Hepburn.

En octubre de 2016, Feria de la vanidad publicó un extracto de la biografía de Katharine Hepburn por William J. Mann. En este extracto, se afirmó que Spencer Tracy utilizaría los servicios de Scotty Bowers.

Bowers era conocido como el proxeneta por atender a los homosexuales encerrados de Hollywood. También afirmó haber tenido una aventura con Spencer Tracy.

Entonces, ¿cómo la supuestamente homosexual Spencer Tracy tuvo una relación con la actriz Katharine Hepburn? Se cree que su pareja fue creada por estudios de Hollywood que querían crear la imagen de una gran pareja.

Scotty Bowers also knew Katharine Hepburn well and claimed that she was attracted to women. He claimed to have introduced the actress to many women over the years. One woman was named ‘Barbara’ and allegedly the two of them met for several years. Upon Katharine Hepburn’s death, Barbara allegedly received $100,000 check from the actress’s estate.

Let’s return now to one of the greatest leading men in Hollywood history. We know that James Dean was rumored to have pursued an affair with Marlon Brando. But what did Brando himself think about homosexuality?

We know about Brando’s brute sexuality on display in films ranging from Un tranvía llamado deseo para Last Tango In Paris. It’s films like these which made women fawn over him. But he had no problem with having affairs with men as well.

In his 1976 autobiography, the actor claimed that homosexuality had become so “in fashion” that it was no longer news. He further stated that he had many ‘homosexual experiences’ and that he wasn’t ashamed to admit it and that he couldn’t care less about what others thought of him.

In fact, there are rumors that Marlon Brando enjoyed having affairs with many of Hollywood’s top stars throughout the ages. He was always known to be outspoken with his opinions and his views.

Marlon Brando showed us that he was very ahead of his time by boldly stating that he didn’t have any opposition to homosexuality. Perhaps in years to come he’ll be remembered as a champion for gay rights when it wasn’t so fashionable.

We mentioned that one of Marilyn Monroe’s flings was with the actress Barbara Stanwyck. In fact, it seems that there are numerous biographers, journalists, and cinephiles alike who have speculated about her sexuality.

Her relationships with Robert Taylor and Frank Fay are believed to have been just “for show,” much like the relationship between Spencer Tracy and Katharine Hepburn. Unlike Marlon Brando, Barbara Stanwyck would fiercely guard her private life and her sexuality.

In fact, she would throw journalists and writers out of her house when she would get pushed about her sexuality. In her later years, she would accuse one journalist of senior abuse for asking about her sexuality.

One of the most frightening screen performances that classic Hollywood has given us was Norman Bates in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho. The enigmatic role was played by actor Anthony Perkins, who himself was an enigma.

While he was married and had two children, it was rumored that he would pursue relationships with men on the side. Once again, Scotty Bowers comes into the picture, as he claimed that he would introduce the actor to many “handsome young men.”

It’s also rumored that the actor received flack and was often mocked for his alleged homosexuality. If such is the case, it’s only natural that he tried his best to keep his personal life as private as possible.

Another character actor who allegedly also had relations with men was Montgomery Clift. Some media outlets have done their best to depict the actor as a troubled soul who battled depression due to hiding a dark secret.

However, there’s another perspective that he was actually very comfortable with his affections for men. Many of Montgomery Clift’s roles involved him being a brooding and almost depressive character.

Yet, this was in stark contrast to his real-life personality. He was known to be very lighthearted and carefree when he was with his partners. He also refuted many of the restrictions that Hollywood studios put on actors. He refused to take roles that he didn’t feel suited him.

This put Montgomery Clift ahead of his time. Upon reflection, perhaps he was a pioneer in making Hollywood more accepting toward homosexual stars.

But we must remember that not everyone could be as bold or open as Marlon Brando or Montgomery Clift. One of the biggest crossover stars during the early days of Cinema was the Welsh actor and composer, Ivor Novello.

Until 1967, homosexual relations were illegal in the UK. As such, he had to keep his sexuality private in his native country. But traveling across the pond to Hollywood changed nothing, as the climate in the first half of the twentieth century was still hostile to homosexuality.

Ivor Novello never publicly revealed his sexuality. Nevertheless, among his social circles it seemed that his homosexuality was apparent. It’s also believed that prior to 1967, the British police would turn a blind eye to his liaisons with men.

In Hollywood, it seems as if he managed to escape the LAPD’s vice squad as well as the snapshots from the paparazzi.

One wonders that had he been born in a different era, he could be open about his feelings without worrying about keeping it quiet from others.

Today, things have changed tremendously in Hollywood. As we discussed in our introduction, this is one of the few industries that’s tolerant toward homosexuals. It’s now an industry where the biggest stars as well as newcomers can be open about their sexuality.

Many of the earliest supporters of same-sex marriage came from Hollywood. In recent years, many great Hollywood films have revolved around same-sex relationships.

As we now take it for granted, we must remember that this wasn’t always the case. We must remember how Ivor Novello kept his sexuality a big secret. We must remember how Barbara Stanwyck was bothered by intrusive journalists and authors.

We must also be grateful for actors such as James Dean, Marlon Brando, and Montgomery Clift who weren’t afraid to be open about homosexuality. It’s because of their frankness that Hollywood has made progress.

So what do you think about how Old Hollywood stars who were secretly homosexual were treated? Do you feel that progress came too late? Do you also think Hollywood should ignore a star’s private lives and values?

Let’s hear your thoughts in the comments.

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They said 'yes' to drugs . and child labor

Young actress Judy Garland was signed to a contract with MGM studio in 1935 when she was just 13 years old. The studio quickly put her to work, pairing her up with fellow child actor Mickey Rooney and forcing her to adhere to a grueling schedule of singing and dance rehearsals. De acuerdo a Cronología, the young stars frequently worked as many as six days a week, often for 18 hour days. In order to keep energy levels high and Garland's weight down, she was supplied with a steady stream of amphetamines.

Before her death of a drug overdose at just 47 years old in 1969, Garland herself reflected on the manner in which the studio controlled her and her young co-star through drugs and nonstop work, saying, "They'd give us pills to keep us on our feet long after we were exhausted. Then they'd take us to the studio hospital and knock us out with sleeping pills — Mickey (Rooney) sprawled out on one bed and me on another. Then after four hours they'd wake us up and give us the pep pills again so we could work 72 hours in a row" (via The Daily Express).


Hollywood Fixer Opens His Little Black Book

STRAIGHT actors who wanted to pay for sex in the 1990s had Heidi Fleiss. Gay ones during the late 1940s and beyond apparently had Scotty Bowers.

His story has floated through moviedom’s clubby senior ranks for years: Back in a more golden age of Hollywood, a guy named Scotty, a former Marine, was said to have run a type of prostitution ring for gay and bisexual men in the film industry, including A-listers like Cary Grant, George Cukor and Rock Hudson, and even arranged sexual liaisons for actresses like Vivien Leigh and Katharine Hepburn.

“Old Hollywood people who have, shall we say, known him would tell me stories,” said Matt Tyrnauer, a writer for Vanity Fair and the director of the 2008 documentary “Valentino: The Last Emperor.” “But whenever I followed up on what would obviously be a great story, I was told, ‘Oh, he’ll never talk.’ ”

Mr. Bowers, 88, recalls his highly unorthodox life in a ribald memoir scheduled to be published by Grove Press on Feb. 14, “Full Service: My Adventures in Hollywood and the Secret Sex Lives of the Stars.” Written with Lionel Friedberg, an award-winning producer of documentaries, it is a lurid, no-detail-too-excruciating account of a sexual Zelig who (if you believe him) trawled an X-rated underworld for over three decades without getting caught.

Image

“I’ve kept silent all these years because I didn’t want to hurt any of these people,” Mr. Bowers said recently over lemonade on his patio in the Hollywood Hills, where he lives in a cluttered bungalow with his wife of 27 years, Lois. “And I never saw the fascination. So they liked sex how they liked it. Who cares?”

He paused for a moment to scratch his collie, Baby, behind the ears. “I don’t need the money,” he continued. “I finally said yes because I’m not getting any younger and all of my famous tricks are dead by now. The truth can’t hurt them anymore.”

Twenty-six years after Hudson’s death from AIDS and more than four decades after “Hollywood Babylon” was first published, it will come as a surprise to no one that the images the movie factories created for stars of the 1940s, ’50s and ’60s — when Mr. Bowers was most active — were just that: images. The people who fed the world strait-laced cinema like “The Philadelphia Story” and perfect-family television like “I Love Lucy” were often quite the opposite of prudish in private.

At the same time, a lot of what Mr. Bowers has to say is pretty shocking. He claims, for instance, to have set Hepburn up with “over 150 different women.” Other stories in the 286-page memoir involve Spencer Tracy, Cole Porter, the Duke and Duchess of Windsor and socialites like the publisher Alfred A. Knopf. “If you believe him, and I do, he’s like the Kinsey Reports live and in living color,” said Mr. Tyrnauer, who recently completed a deal to make a documentary about Mr. Bowers.

“Full Service” at the very least highlights how sharply the rules of engagement for reporting celebrity gossip have changed. The sexual shenanigans of movie stars were a currency for tabloids stretching back to Hollywood’s earliest days, but studios and, subsequently, squadrons of privately hired public relations experts could usually keep all but the most egregious behavior out of the news media. Secrets were kept.

A degree of that still goes on, of course, but it’s much harder to keep details as salacious as the ones Mr. Bowers outlines under wraps. Now all it takes is one pair of loose lips for TMZ to beam all manner of embarrassing information around the globe.

The people behind the memoir, including Mr. Bowers’s agent, David Kuhn, and Morgan Entrekin, the publisher of Grove/Atlantic, insist that “Full Service” is not a prurient tell-all, but instead provides a window into an erased, forgotten and denied past of Los Angeles. In his pitch to publishers, Mr. Kuhn positioned it as no less than a tale about “the complex and conflicted psychosexual history of America’s soul.”

A lot of big publishers didn’t agree, or at least were not willing to risk the bawdy stuff to get to any larger point. (Yes, the book was offered to Knopf.) Mr. Entrekin said he decided to publish “Full Service” partly because “there seemed to be nothing meanspirited about it at all.

“You don’t get the sense that this guy is trying to exploit these experiences,” he said.

The heirs and estates of some of the people mentioned in the book are bound to feel otherwise. Fans, too.

“He needs to brace himself for attacks,” said William J. Mann, the author of celebrity biographies like “Kate: The Woman Who Was Hepburn,” which details what he says was Hepburn’s lesbianism and Tracy’s bisexuality, using Mr. Bowers (identified as Scotty) as one of several sources. “Some of the pushback is going to be homophobia,” Mr. Mann added. “But there will also be people who say he’s making it up to sell books and others who say why can’t you let these people rest in peace.”

“Kate” drew all those reactions and more when it came out in 2006. In particular, “Spencer Tracy: A Biography,” written by James Curtis and published in October, dismisses Mr. Mann’s account of Hepburn’s and Tracy’s sexuality, characterizing Mr. Bowers as unreliable. “Bowers is full of glib stories and revelations, all cheerfully unverifiable,” Mr. Curtis writes.

Jennifer Grant, the daughter of Cary Grant, declined to comment on Mr. Bowers’s book. But her spokeswoman said Ms. Grant’s book, “Good Stuff: A Reminiscence of My Father, Cary Grant,” published in 2011, acknowledges that she knew him to be very straight and that he was amused by chatter that he was bisexual.

The ABC News anchor Cynthia McFadden, an executor of the Hepburn estate, said it was its long-standing practice not to comment about books like “Full Service.”

Mr. Entrekin said that the book had been vetted by a libel lawyer. “Based on his comments, we deleted some information,” he said.

Lawyers who specialize in celebrity-related matters said neither federal copyright law nor the patchwork of state-based “right of publicity” laws offer recourse to heirs or estates displeased with assertions published in a memoir. “They might be in tears, but there’s nothing they can do about it,” said Alan U. Schwartz, a veteran entertainment lawyer at Greenberg Traurig.

A $20 bill, given as a tip, according to Mr. Bowers, bought his services in the beginning. That was 1946, and he was 23. As Mr. Bowers tells it, he stumbled into his profession by accident.

Newly discharged from the Marines after fighting in the Pacific during World War II, Mr. Bowers got a job pumping gas at the corner of Van Ness Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard, not far from Paramount Pictures. One day Walter Pidgeon (“Mrs. Miniver”) drove up in a Lincoln two-door coupe, according to the book, and propositioned Mr. Bowers, who accepted.

Soon, word got around among Pidgeon’s friends, and Mr. Bowers, from his base at the station, started “arranging similar stuff” for some of Bowers’s more adventurous friends.

Many clients were not famous, Mr. Bowers said. Film production was flourishing in the late 1940s, and Los Angeles became a destination for writers, set designers, hairstylists and other “artists with open minds,” as Mr. Bowers put it. It was also a time of the vice squad, which raided gay bars. “The station was a safer hangout,” he said. “Sometimes police would come around, sure. But I think I never got caught partly because I kept everything in my head. There was no little black book.”

Perhaps it’s hard to look at Mr. Bowers today — an elderly man with sloped shoulders and a shock of unruly white hair — and believe that a half-century ago he was sought out by some of the most handsome men to have ever strutted through Hollywood. But after some time with him, the still-sparkling blues and the impish smile help convince you that he could have definitely had seductive powers.

Mr. Bowers quit pumping gas in 1950 and says he supported himself for the next two decades through prostitution, bartending and working as a handyman. Mr. Bowers writes that, in addition to his gay clients, he also gained a following among heterosexual actors like Desi Arnaz, who used him as a type of matchmaking service. Mr. Bowers, who says he personally “prefers the sexual company of women,” says he never took payment for connecting people like Arnaz with bedroom partners.

“I wasn’t a pimp,” he said. (Mr. Arnaz’s wife at the time, Lucille Ball, apparently felt otherwise, according to “Full Service.”)

Mr. Bowers said he continued this life until the onset of AIDS in the 1980s he also married in 1984. AIDS “brought an end to the sexual freedoms that had defined much of life in Tinseltown ever since the birth of movies,” Mr. Bowers writes. “It was obvious that my days of arranging tricks for others were over. It was too unsafe a game to play anymore.”

Over the years, according to Mr. Bowers, various writers he encountered considered writing about him. One was Dominick Dunne, whose son, the actor and director Griffin Dunne, provided a blurb for the “Full Service” book jacket. (“A jaw-dropping firsthand account of closeted life in Hollywood during the ’40s and ’50s.”)

Mr. Bowers says Tennessee Williams, during a visit to the Beverly Hills Hotel in the 1960s, wrote “a revealing exposé.” But Mr. Bowers hated it, and Williams scrapped it. “He made me sound like a mad queen flying over Hollywood Boulevard on a broomstick directing all the queens in town,” he said. “It was way over the top.”


5. Whitewashing

Few people have heard the name Margarita Carmen Cansino. Her father was Spanish Roma and her mother was Irish-American. In typical Hollywood fashion, she was typecast as the exotic foreigner in a series of B movies. When Fox didn’t renew her contract, she tried her luck with Columbia.

To make her more marketable, Harry Cohn transformed her into Rita Hayworth.

She lost weight, dyed her hair red, and underwent painful electrolysis procedures to raise her hairline, since her low hairline was considered ethnic.

Once she was marketed as a white actress, Hayworth rose to international fame and was even nicknamed “The Love Goddess.” She made 61 movies and was ranked #19 on the American Film Institute&aposs List of Greatest Stars of All Time.

Studios certainly weren’t above changing their actors’ appearances and choosing stage names for them. Columbia pressured Marilyn Novak to use the name Kim Novak. 20th-Century Fox told Norma Jean Mortenson to go by Marilyn Monroe, a name she never liked. But Rita Hayworth&aposs price of fame was complete renunciation of her background and erasure of her natural beauty.


Usage [ edit ]

With the inclusion of morality clauses in the contracts of Hollywood actors in the 1920s, some closeted stars contracted marriages of convenience to protect their public reputations and preserve their careers. A noteworthy exception that demonstrated the precarious position of the public homosexual was that of William Haines, who brought his career to a sudden end at the age of 35. He refused to end his relationship with his male partner, Jimmy Shields, and enter into a marriage at the direction of his studio employer, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Α] Some companies punished actors for defying these clauses by not paying them. Universal Film Company justified their actions by labeling the actor's behavior as unacceptable this included having attractions that weren't heterosexual. These clauses placed actors in a difficult situation as they put their livelihoods on the line and essentially pressured them into lavender marriages. Lavender marriages were also a way to preserve the public's image of a celebrity, especially if these celebrities were famous for their looks or sex appeal. Β] The end of the 20th century brought about a change for the LGBTQ+ community, particularly after the 1969 Stonewall riots. Because of this, lavender marriages between celebrities became less common. & # 915 & # 93

The term lavender marriage has been used to characterize the following couples/individuals:

  • The English broadcaster and journalist Nancy Spain considered entering a lavender marriage to disguise her relationship with Joan Werner Laurie, a magazine and book editor. & # 916 & # 93
  • The marriage of Robert Taylor and Barbara Stanwyck supposedly disguised the purported bisexuality of both and has been characterized as lavender for that reason, but it was prompted by the need to protect both their reputations after a Photoplay magazine article reported they had been living together for years while unmarried. & # 917 & # 93
  • Actor Rock Hudson, troubled by rumors that Confidential magazine was planning to expose his homosexuality, married Phyllis Gates, a young woman employed by his agent, in 1955. Gates insisted until the time of her own death that she had had no idea the marriage was anything other than legitimate. & # 918 & # 93
  • The term has been applied to the marriage of Tyrone Power and French actress Annabella in 1939. Η]
  • American theater actress and producer Katharine Cornell married stage director Guthrie McClintic in 1921. She appeared only in productions he directed, and they lived together in their Manhattan townhouse until his death in 1961. ⎖]
  • Swedish Hollywood actor Nils Asther and vaudeville entertainer Vivian Duncan had a brief marriage of convenience that resulted in one child Asther was a well known homosexual who had a relationship with actor/stuntman Kenneth DuMain. & # 9111 & # 93
  • Hollywood film actress Janet Gaynor and costume designer Adrian were married from 1939 until his death in 1959, and had a son together. Gaynor was rumored to be bisexual and Adrian was openly gay within the Hollywood community, and it is assumed their relationship was a lavender marriage mandated by the studio system. Gaynor later re-married, to producer Paul Gregory and she and Gregory were close friends with Broadway actress Mary Martin, who was rumored to be bisexual, and Martin's husband Richard Halliday, a drama critic who was a closeted gay man. The foursome lived together on Martin's ranch in the state of Goiás, Brazil, for several years. ⎘]

Although lavender marriages are typically associated with LGBTQ+ celebrities, people of all backgrounds have used them for protection and convenience. These individuals have found solace on websites where they can express their distress about their marriages of convenience, but not many have talked about their experience outside of the Internet, apart from an article in The Guardian in November 2019, asking individuals to share their reasons for marrying for convenience. ⎙] In November 2017, an article was published by the BBC about marriages of convenience in Asian LGBTQ+ communities in the UK. & # 9114 & # 93

The BBC article and its participants refer to a "marriage of convenience" rather than a lavender marriage, but they are still referring to a marriage that hides one or both partner's sexuality. Individuals reported that family expectations and keeping up an image were several reasons why they had a marriage of convenience. Awemir Iqbal, a gay man originally from Pakistan and residing in West Yorkshire, stated that he understood why people had a marriage of convenience to satisfy their family's wishes. A fear of tarnishing the family name, or being disowned if they were to express their sexuality by pursuing same-sex relationships, leads some to enter into a marriage of convenience. Support for LGBTQ+ individuals comes from "Karma Nirvana", a group to help individuals escaping forced marriages. Karma Nirvana's founder, Jasvinder Sanghera, says there are probably more marriages of convenience than are reported. Websites such as Mocmatch, Saathinight, Al-Jannah are places where individuals can find partners to partake in a marriage of convenience. & # 9114 & # 93

Lavender marriages or marriages of convenience can also be found in China, where same-sex marriages or the LGBTQ+ community are not accepted. During the Chinese New Year, people travel home to celebrate with their families, but young people also have to worry about pressures surrounding marriage and having children. For gay Chinese men and lesbian Chinese women, societal pressure to have a heterosexual relationship can be so profound that they often turn to lavender marriages or "cooperative [marriages]". Some individuals, like Tiger Zhao, marry lesbian women to undertake societal and parental expectations and ease some pressure. Many couples report that the lavender marriages do more harm than good if individuals deny themselves the expression of their sexuality outside of the marriage. The topic is not publicly discussed because homosexuality is not widely accepted. & # 91 cita necesaria ]

However, smaller LGBTQ+ communities have gained enough momentum for an app to have been developed specifically focused on providing lavender marriages for LGBTQ+ individuals. The app, called "Queers", has been discontinued, but it made such an impact in the LGBTQ+ community that former members have asked Queers founder, Liao Zhuoying, for a partner of the opposite sex they can take home to prevent nagging from family members. & # 9115 & # 93


18 Salacious Scandals from the Golden Age of Hollywood

The secret cross dresser J. Edgar Hoover kept personal files on hundreds of people in part to protect himself from blackmail and innuendo. FBI

4. J. Edgar Hoover&rsquos files on Hollywood personalities

After meeting Charles Chaplin at a dinner party, J. Edgar Hoover began using the resources of the FBI to compile a dossier on what he considered to be the Hollywood star&rsquos un-American beliefs and activities. Eventually the file grew to over 1900 pages, and was instrumental in Chaplin&rsquos long exile from his adopted country. Chaplin was not alone. Hoover used, or rather abused, his position as head of the FBI to keep files on stars, directors, producers, and reporters &ndash indeed on anyone whom he considered possibly subversive or anti-American. The files were held for the purpose of blackmail, and were extensive collections of personal information and activities. He documented, often through little more than innuendo, potential homosexual activity, drug use, alcohol use (both during and after prohibition), sexual peccadilloes, extramarital affairs, and political beliefs.

When he found it beneficial to his own interests, Hoover leaked information, collected but often unconfirmed, to press representatives sympathetic to his views, which were anti-communist, anti-Semitic, and often anti-feminist. Scandals in the Hollywood periodicals of the day, later amplified by the mainstream press, were fed by the FBI files as Hoover attempted to discredit Hollywood&rsquos elite. Most of the information he collected and held secretly was intended to be used for his personal benefit, and the vast majority of the information was collected without regard to its accuracy or its relevance to the mission of the FBI, as were most of Hoover&rsquos &ldquopersonal files&rdquo. One of the greatest scandals in Hollywood&rsquos, indeed in all of American history, was the abuse of power routinely practiced by the man who considered himself to be the greatest lawman in America throughout his long and self-serving career.


Homosexuals in Hollywood

I was watching some old musicals and was struck by the tremendous influence of gays and lesbians on those films.

From set design to costumes to the wonderful choreography, you can clearly see the whimsical, clever, happy, passionate, and inventive influence on these terrific films.

From costume designer Adrian to Edith Head to Erte and Orry Kelly and so many more, hats off to our creative and gifted gay brothers and their achievements.

Gays and Lesbians have always been the backbone of film as well as dance and theater.

In 1929, the top movie box office draw was an out gay man, Billy Haines. Our most beloved stars have been or are gay.

It is only natural that the creative influence would extend to the "back of the house" crafts.

Adrian was NOT gay, and I'm the dame who can prove it!!

Is this supposed to be a newsflash? If so, you've failed miserably.

[quote]I'm the dame who can prove it!!

I knew this was coming. Next we'll hear from the tired old Helen Lawson troll.

If people want to fulfill stereotypes, I suppose that's their prerogative. I've been working as an actuary for an insurance company for 11 years, and have yet to meet another gay man in this field. I'm very proud to be an individual, and not just toeing the stereotype line by becoming an actor, flight attendant or hairdresser.

We'll have to work harder to excite you, r4. That's our only purpose here.

Believe me, Adrian was a flaming homo.

No R3, it was not meant to be a newsflash, only a thread to start a discussion on the great history of gays and lesbians in the entertainment field and to offer something else here at the DL other than the MJ death and the attending racism it has sparked.

Here's an interesting article, OP on gay set and costume design. It stems from gay painters and all creative arts. Americans probably don't realize the influence of gays and lesbians in their daily lives and on the culture they enjoy.

Also, Adrian was gay. I remember an AD spread on him and Janet Gaynor, "the wife", and the decor and the fact they sat miles apart on a sofa told the whole story.

Billy Haines was not an "out gay star." He was a star whose popularity was waning, he was outed (arrested I think), and the studio used that to get rid of him. He became a decorator and was with his male partner for many years, and they were both friends to stars from Carole Lombard to Joan Crawford. I have enormous respect for Billy Haines for being an out gay man at that time, but the public was not aware of his sexuality so I don't think "out gay star" is accurate. Out to his co-workers, probably, but that's it.

It was Haines, I think, who ended up in court on ridiculous charges because a young boy at the beach started hanging around the group Haines was with. Nothing improper happened, the gay men were just nice to a kid who approached them but his father pitched a fit and made it seem as if the child had been somehow harmed. No one even claimed that anything sexual had happened, I don't think, just that these awful gay men were in the general vicinity of a male child. There are reproductions of stories about it in Hollywood Babylon and the homophobia is dripping from the pages. "Pink poodles" and every other silly ass, sneering stereotype is brought out (who knows if Haines even had a pink poodle?) but none of it changes the fact all that happened was a young boy approached the group and they let him hang out for a while.

I was under the impression that Billy Haines had a partner, made no secret about it, refused to employ starlets for PR situations and when he wouldn't play along, Jack Warner canned him. It was only then that he had to have a new profession and began decorating.

The fact that Busby Berkeley WASN'T Gay is one of the more amazing things I've ever heard.

R11, Haines was at Metro, not Warners. It was L.B. Mayer who canned him. And, yes, he was pretty adamant about living an out gay life with his partner, Jimmy. He was not "out" to the general public but he certainly didn't want to hide who he was. It was the studio that was doing all the damage control, which was fine whenever he was a top star but not when his popularity began to wane and he got caught in those compromising legal positions. Read "Wisecracker."

Billy Haines was the only guy at MGM I didn't bang (except for Lassie!)

Cristina Crawford quoted her mother, Joan in "Mommie Dearest" as saying, "Billy and Jimmy have the best marriage in town!"

Edith Head is not a drag name, dear. She was not a gay brother.

But Edith "ate at the Y" so she counts, dear.

How about Fred Astaire? and Eleanor Powell? Both seemed so talented and so gay.

Eleanor Powell was so beautiful. sigh.

That would make her a sister.

For me, it is the whimsey, the fantasy or elegance of the sets that took you into the story, that became almost another actor in the scene.

Now, so much today is computer generated and doesn't have the emotion of set construction.

I love the sets for The Women and the big Hollywood musical numbers.

The costumes Joan wore in the 40's. And yes, hard to believe Busby Berkeley wasn't queer.

Another Hollywood gay was Mitchell Leisen, who was a costume and set designer before becoming a director. Leisen's screwball comedies like Easy Money and Midnight were enormously popular and helped define an era and a genre, and his film Death Takes A Holiday is considered a solid, contemplative mood piece. Leisen did marry but he's also widely known to be gay or least bi-sexual.

Gene Kelly is on TMC right now. The sets and costumes really are his partners. All done by gays.

I worked for many years, the 60s to the early 90s at 20th and MCA, in the shop dept. We're everywhere on the Lot.

Charles Walters was a great gay director/dancer at MGM. He directed Judy in Summer Stock and Easter Parade and danced with her in Presenting Lily Mars. Roger Edens, Judy's vocal coach was gay. Kay Thompson was a bisexual. Sydney Guilaroff, the best damned hairdresser in Hollywood, was MGM's resident stylist. Adrian and Irene were gay. Hell, EVERYONE was gay.

Edith Head only looked gay.

Orry Kelly was also a terrific costume designer - think Marilyn's near nude dress in Some Like It Hot, he got an oscar for his costumes in Les Girls etc- and he was gay, and it seems very good pals with Cary Grant when they were young - presumably before Randolph Scott came on the scene.

and Travilla of course who also did some great Monroe costumes. I think Oleg Cassini was the only straight dress designer in hollywood which meant he got lots of action - having romanced Grace Kelly and marrying Gene Tierney among his other conquests.

All those chorus boys (including the young George Chakiris) one sees dancing around those female stars like Marilyn, Jane Russell must all have had a great time too.

Ditto Charles Walters as mentioned - he is the dancer with Joan Crawford in the hilarious Torch Song.

Tommy Rall is a terrific gay dancer from the golden age and he is still going and has a website!

Love him with Ann Miller in Kiss Me Kate and he is one of those brothers in 7 Brides - he was also the ballet dancer with Babs in the send up of Swan Lake in Funny Girl.

There is a good interview with him in the extras on the 7 Brides dvd.

r27 again - Tommy Rall also has a good role in the 1955 My Sister Eileen competing with Bob Fosse (they have a great dance number together) for Janet Leigh.

Speaking of chorus boys all those sailors in South Pacific can't all have been straight, and they include body builder Ed Fury who had a few bit parts at Fox (he was photographed with Widmark, Susan Hayward etc) and he is the guy introduced to Joan Crawford in Female On The Beach - bet he could tell a few tales, if still going.

It must have been fun on the set and in the dressing rooms for Gentlemen Prefer Blondes when they were shooting Jane's "Anyone Here For Love" number with all the guys in those skin tight flesh color shorts.

The very hetero or so it seemed Howard Hawks seems to have had a penchant for cute young guys in his movies: Rick Nelson in Rio Bravo, young hot James Caan in El Dorado .

Busby Berkeley was gay or probably bi. I worked with this lady who her father did something in show business, but she wouldn't tell me who here father was because she was extremely private. Anyway, I watched a documentary about Busby Berkeley, and I came in the next day to work. I mentioned the documentary I watched the night before, and she said she too watched that documentary. She said those people who were interview were being nice, she swore the man was gay. Even though he was married, it was a front from what she told me. This woman did not believe in making up stories. She was a very straightforward person. And she rarely gossiped because she didn't believe in it.

"South Pacific" sailor hunks also included Roy Ely (Tarzan) and Doug McClure.

I want the truth about Edith. Did she really eat at the Y? Costume design seems a rather unusual career choice for a lesbian.

"Costume design seems a rather unusual career choice for a lesbian."

Retire your gay card immediately!

I think that was a rumor that was going on for years, but I heard it wasn't true. Edith Head was not gay. Also, she was very happily married from what I heard as well.

ALL of the top costume designers at the Hollywood studios were gay men in the 1930s. Adrian, Orry Kelly, Travis Banton, Walter Plunkett and Howard Greer. and it drove the studio heads like Mayer, Zanuck, Cohn and Warner crazy because they couldn't maintain much control over these gay men who became the confidantes of all their female stars.

It wasn't until the end of the decade that they were replaced by more practical women designers like Edith Head, Irene and Helen Rose who showed a bit more loyalty to the studios.

Edith Head was only gay for herself. She was tightly wound, pulled all the credit to herself, and wouldn't have admitted an lesbian impulse no matter what her natural inclinations would have been because she was all ambition and status.

I'm going to butcher a line from "Before Night Falls" but it goes something like.

Homosexuals have long defined what we consider to be beauty.

Were the gays in the old days more out to friends than today's Hollywood gays? Was there a larger circle of gays? Do the 21st century Hollywood gays keep it all in to a much smaller group?

Irene Sharaff (not to be confused with the aforementioned Irene) was an out Lesbian costume and production designer and a vital part of MGM's Arthur Freed unit as well as a 5 time Oscar winner of such notable films as West Side Story, An American in Paris, Meet Me in St. Louis, The King and I, Cleopatra and Funny Girl.

Irene Sharaff's constumes were indeed fabulous for Liz in Cleo and Streisand in both Funny Girl and Hello Dolly.

Edith Head was a lesbian, OP?

Busby Berkeley could have been bi, R30, but he was married 7 times, and was named as the other man in at least one divorce action, so I doubt if he could be called gay.

Then again, it's hard to imagine a straight guy thinking this one up:

Thank you so much for a YouTube link, r43.

Oh fuck off, R44. If you're on a crusade against YouTube then don't click on the link.

Sharraff's costumes for Streisand in Funny Girl were horrid.

That brown monstrosity she wears while performing "People" is beyond description.

The only acceptable gown she wears in FG isn't even a gown- it's in the scene where Arnstein turns the casino job. It's the grey draped dress that's cut on the bias accenting her great hipline and butt.

I thought Orry-Kelly was straight, seriously.

I have enormous respect for Billy Haines for being an out gay man at that time, but the public was not aware of his sexuality so I don't think "out gay star" is accurate.

Hmm, I don't know about that. People living in cities with gayborhoods and the sophisticates they knew, would have recognized he was gay. Franklin Pangborn anyone?

"How about Fred Astaire? and Eleanor Powell? Both seemed so talented and so gay.

Eleanor Powell was so beautiful. sigh."

Eleanor was very religious, and even had a tv show involving God. Not even gay around the edges. Astaire started in show business in 1905. By his teens, he and his sister were famous. Fred had to have been at least exposed to gay people. He was also friends with David, the Prince of Wales.

"Ditto Charles Walters as mentioned - he is the dancer with Joan Crawford in the hilarious Torch Song."

This has to be her gayest movie.

Which "Irene" jumped out of a window?

It was the "Irene" who was married to MGM scenic artist Cedric Gibbons. she lived in the Roosevelt Hotel, I believe, and laid out all her costume sketches around the living room on day, wrote a suicide note that read "find someone good to design" and promptly jumped out the window.

Wasn't Merle Oberon married to Cedric Gibbons? But he was actually gay.

And he wasn't merely a "scenic artist" he was head of production design at MGM for 3 decades and his name appears prominently in thousands of their film credits.

You are correct R50, Gibbons was indeed head of Design at MGM and not just a lowly scenic artist, so exfuckincuse me. I DO have the details about Irene's suicide correct,so why dont you stick your head up a dead bear's asshole, mr. anal retentive prisspot.


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